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(1/608) Loss of D2 receptor binding with age in rhesus monkeys: importance of correction for differences in striatal size.

The relation between striatal dopamine D2 receptor binding and aging was investigated in rhesus monkeys with PET. Monkeys (n = 18, 39 to 360 months of age) were scanned with 11C-raclopride; binding potential in the striatum was estimated graphically. Because our magnetic resonance imaging analysis revealed a concomitant relation between size of striatum and age, the dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) data were corrected for possible partial volume (PV) artifacts before parameter estimation. The age-related decline in binding potential was 1% per year and was smaller than the apparent effect if the age-related change in size was ignored. This is the first in vivo demonstration of a decline in dopamine receptor binding in nonhuman primates. The rate of decline in binding potential is consistent with in vitro findings in monkeys but smaller than what has been measured previously in humans using PET. Previous PET studies in humans, however, have not corrected for PV error, although a decline in striatal size with age has been demonstrated. The results of this study suggest that PV correction must be applied to PET data to accurately detect small changes in receptor binding that may occur in parallel with structural changes in the brain.  (+info)

(2/608) Memory guided saccade deficit after caudate nucleus lesion.

The role of the caudate nucleus in ocular motor control is not well determined in humans. Eye movements were recorded from a 45 year old man with infarctions involving bilaterally the body of the caudate nucleus, with a greater extent on the left side. The patient exhibited a pattern of eye movement abnormalities in which a delay dependent decrease of accuracy of memory guided saccades predominated. By contrast, memory guided pointing was normal. It is concluded that the body of the caudate nucleus participates in a spatial short term memory network devoted to eye movements.  (+info)

(3/608) Recovery of chronic parkinsonian monkeys by autotransplants of carotid body cell aggregates into putamen.

We have studied the effect of unilateral autografts of carotid body cell aggregates into the putamen of MPTP-treated monkeys with chronic parkinsonism. Two to four weeks after transplantation, the monkeys initiated a progressive recovery of mobility with reduction of tremor and bradykinesia and restoration of fine motor abilities on the contralateral side. Apomorphine injections induced rotations toward the side of the transplant. Functional recovery was accompanied by the survival of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (TH-positive) grafted glomus cells. A high density of TH-immunoreactive fibers was seen reinnervating broad regions of the ipsilateral putamen and caudate nucleus. The nongrafted, contralateral striatum remained deafferented. Intrastriatal autografting of carotid body tissue is a feasible technique with beneficial effects on parkinsonian monkeys; thus, this therapeutic approach could also be applied to treat patients with Parkinson's disease.  (+info)

(4/608) Magnetization transfer contrast of various regions of the brain in liver cirrhosis.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: T1-weighted MR images show high signal intensity in the pallidum of many patients with liver cirrhosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate quantitative changes in MR signals in patients with liver cirrhosis by using the magnetization transfer technique. METHODS: Magnetization transfer ratios were measured in seven different regions of the brain in 37 patients with liver cirrhosis and in 37 healthy volunteers. RESULTS: The magnetization transfer ratios in patients with liver cirrhosis were significantly lower than those in control subjects in the globus pallidus, putamen, thalamus, corona radiata, and subcortical white matter. CONCLUSION: Abnormal magnetization transfer ratios may be found in otherwise normal-appearing cerebral regions.  (+info)

(5/608) Sequential bilateral transplantation in Parkinson's disease: effects of the second graft.

Five parkinsonian patients who had received implants of human embryonic mesencephalic tissue unilaterally in the striatum 10-56 months earlier were grafted with tissue from four to eight donors into the putamen (four patients) or the putamen plus the caudate nucleus (one patient) on the other side, and were followed for 18-24 months. After 12-18 months, PET showed a mean 85% increase in 6-L-[18F]fluorodopa uptake in the putamen with the second graft, whereas there was no significant further change in the previously transplanted putamen. Two patients exhibited marked additional improvements after their second graft: 'on-off' fluctuations virtually disappeared, movement speed increased, and L-dopa could be withdrawn in one patient and reduced by 70% in the other. The improvement in one patient was moderate. Two patients with atypical features, who responded poorly to the first graft, worsened following the second transplantation. These findings indicate that sequential transplantation in patients does not compromise the survival and function of either the first or the second graft. Moreover, putamen grafts that restore fluorodopa uptake to normal levels can give improvements of major therapeutic value.  (+info)

(6/608) Role of the medial prefrontal cortex in 5-HT1A receptor-induced inhibition of 5-HT neuronal activity in the rat.

1. We examined the involvement of the frontal cortex in the 5-HT2A receptor-induced inhibition of 5-HT neurones in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) of the anaesthetized rat using single-unit recordings complemented by Fos-immunocytochemistry. 2. Both transection of the frontal cortex as well as ablation of the medial region of the prefrontal cortex (mPFC) significantly attenuated the inhibition of 5-HT neurones induced by systemic administration of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT (0.5-16 microg kg(-1), i.v.). In comparison, the response to 8-OH-DPAT was not altered by ablation of the parietal cortex. The inhibitory effect of 8-OH-DPAT was reversed by the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, WAY 100635 (0.1 mg kg(-1), i.v.) in all neurones tested. 3. In contrast, cortical transection did not alter the sensitivity of 5-HT neurones to iontophoretic application of 8-OH-DPAT into the DRN. Similarly, cortical transection did not alter the sensitivity of 5-HT neurones to systemic administration of the selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor, paroxetine (0.1-0.8 mg kg(-1) , i.v.). 4. 8-OH-DPAT evoked excitation of mPFC neurones at doses (0.5-32 microg kg(-1), i.v.) in the range of those which inhibited 5-HT cell firing. At higher doses (32-512 microg kg(-1), i.v.) 8-OH-DPAT inhibited mPFC neurones. 8-OH-DPAT (0.1 mg kg(-1), s.c.) also induced Fos expression in the mPFC. The neuronal excitation and inhibition, as well as the Fos expression, were antagonized by WAY 100635. 5. These data add further support to the view that the inhibitory effect of 5-HT1A receptor agonists on the firing activity of DRN 5-HT neurones involves, in part, activation of a 5-HT1A receptor-mediated postsynaptic feedback loop centred on the mPFC.  (+info)

(7/608) Mitochondrial function is differentially altered in the basal ganglia of chronic schizophrenics.

In the present study, we have applied a novel strategy involving the postmortem measurement of the mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme cytochrome-c oxidase (COX; complex IV) to identify regional changes in energy metabolism in the basal ganglia of chronic, medicated schizophrenics. COX activity was decreased in the caudate nucleus but increased in the putamen and nucleus accumbens. An increase in succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) was evident in the putamen and nucleus accumbens, but changes were not seen with NADH dehydrogenase (complex I). An analysis of interregional correlations in energy metabolism revealed several anomalies in the connections between the caudate and putamen and the globus pallidus in schizophrenics. Results provide strong evidence that changes in baseline energy metabolism in specific regions of the basal ganglia may exist in the disease. Based upon the high degree of input it receives from associative cortical areas, results suggest that a defect in the caudate may underlie certain aspects of cognitive decline in schizophrenics. In contrast, an increase in COX in the putamen, which receives extensive projections from the sensorimotor cortex, may reflect an effect of chronic neuroleptic treatment on motor function.  (+info)

(8/608) The effects of acute nicotine on the metabolism of dopamine and the expression of Fos protein in striatal and limbic brain areas of rats during chronic nicotine infusion and its withdrawal.

The effects of acute nicotine (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.) on dopamine (DA) metabolism and Fos protein expression in striatal and limbic areas of rats on the seventh day of chronic nicotine infusion (4 mg. kg(-1). d(-1)) and after 24 or 72 hr withdrawal were investigated. In saline-infused rats, acute nicotine elevated striatal and limbic 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) concentrations significantly. During the nicotine infusion, no such increases were seen in the striatum, but limbic HVA was somewhat elevated. After 24 hr withdrawal when no nicotine was found in the plasma, acute nicotine elevated striatal DOPAC and HVA and limbic HVA. However, the limbic DOPAC was unaffected. Acute nicotine increased Fos immunostaining (IS) in the caudate-putamen (CPU), the core of nucleus accumbens (NAcc), the cingulate cortex (Cg), and the central nucleus of amygdala (ACe) significantly. During nicotine infusion the nicotine-induced responses were attenuated in CPU and NAcc, whereas in ACe and Cg Fos immunostaining was increased as in saline-infused rats. After 24 hr withdrawal, acute nicotine did not increase Fos immunostaining in CPU, NAcc, and Cg, but increased it clearly in ACe. After 72 hr withdrawal, nicotine's effects were restored. Our findings suggest that the nicotinic receptors in the striatal areas are desensitized more easily than those in the limbic areas. Furthermore, the effects of nicotine on various DA metabolites differ. We also found evidence for long-lasting inactivation of nicotinic receptors in vivo regulating limbic dopamine metabolism and Fos expression in striatal and limbic areas. These findings might be important for the protective effects of nicotine in Parkinson's disease and in its dependence-producing properties.  (+info)