Accelerated transcription of PRPS1 in X-linked overactivity of normal human phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase.
Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP) synthetase (PRS) superactivity is an X-linked disorder characterized by gout with overproduction of purine nucleotides and uric acid. Study of the two X-linked PRS isoforms (PRS1 and PRS2) in cells from certain affected individuals has shown selectively increased concentrations of structurally normal PRS1 transcript and isoform, suggesting that this form of the disorder involves pretranslational dysregulation of PRPS1 expression and might be more appropriately termed overactivity of normal PRS. We applied Southern and Northern blot analyses and slot blotting of nuclear runoffs to delineate the process underlying aberrant PRPS1 expression in fibroblasts and lymphoblasts from patients with overactivity of normal PRS. Neither PRPS1 amplification nor altered stability or processing of PRS1 mRNA was identified, but PRPS1 transcription was increased relative to GAPDH (3- to 4-fold normal in fibroblasts; 1.9- to 2.4-fold in lymphoblasts) and PRPS2. Nearly coordinate relative increases in each process mediating transfer of genetic information from PRPS1 transcription to maximal PRS1 isoform expression in patient fibroblasts further supported the idea that accelerated PRPS1 transcription is the major aberration leading to PRS1 overexpression. In addition, modulated relative increases in PRS activities at suboptimal Pi concentration and in rates of PRPP and purine nucleotide synthesis in intact patient fibroblasts indicate that despite an intact allosteric mechanism of regulation of PRS activity, PRPS1 transcription is a major determinant of PRPP and purine synthesis. The genetic basis of disordered PRPS1 transcription remains unresolved; normal- and patient-derived PRPS1s share nucleotide sequence identity at least 850 base pairs 5' to the consensus transcription initiation site. (+info
Purine metabolites suppress proliferation of human NK cells through a lineage-specific purine receptor.
NK cell proliferation is suppressed in some patients with cancer by unknown mechanisms. Because purine metabolites released into the extracellular space during cell lysis may affect cell function, we hypothesized that these metabolites could serve as feedback regulators of NK cell proliferation. Sorted NK (CD56+/CD3-) cells were incubated with IL-2 (1000 U/ml) in a 4-day thymidine uptake assay with or without 10-10,000 microM of nucleotides. Adenine nucleotides inhibited NK cell proliferation, with ATP = ADP > 5'-adenylylimidodiphosphate > AMP = adenosine; ADP-ribose and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, but not nicotinamide or UTP, caused a dose-dependent suppression of thymidine uptake. A total of 100 microM ATP, a concentration that induced a maximal (80%) inhibition of thymidine uptake, did not inhibit cytotoxic activity against K562 targets. Because NK cells retained the ability to lyse K562 targets 4 days after exposure to 500 microM ATP or 1000 microM adenosine, inhibition of thymidine uptake was not due to cell death. Incubation of NK cells with dibutyryl cAMP and forskolin also suppressed thymidine uptake. Cholera toxin and pertussis toxin suppressed NK cell proliferation. Pertussis toxin did not block the adenine nucleotide effects. Further, ATP, but not adenosine or other nucleotides, markedly increased intracellular cAMP in a dose-dependent manner. The ATP-induced increase in cAMP was specific to cytolytic cells, because CD19+ B cells and CD4+ T cells did not increase their intracellular cAMP. These studies demonstrate that NK proliferation is regulated through purine receptors by adenine nucleotides, which may play a role in decreased NK cell activity. The response to adenine nucleotides is lineage-specific. (+info
Effects of guanine, inosine, and xanthine nucleotides on beta(2)-adrenergic receptor/G(s) interactions: evidence for multiple receptor conformations.
The aim of our study was to examine the effects of different purine nucleotides [GTP, ITP, and xanthosine 5'-triphosphate (XTP)] on receptor/G protein coupling. As a model system, we used a fusion protein of the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor and the alpha subunit of the G protein G(s). GTP was more potent and efficient than ITP and XTP at inhibiting ternary complex formation and supporting adenylyl cyclase (AC) activation. We also studied the effects of several beta(2)-adrenergic receptor ligands on nucleotide hydrolysis and on AC activity in the presence of GTP, ITP, and XTP. The efficacy of agonists at promoting GTP hydrolysis correlated well with the efficacy of agonists for stimulating AC in the presence of GTP. This was, however, not the case for ITP hydrolysis and AC activity in the presence of ITP. The efficacy of ligands at stimulating AC in the presence of XTP differed considerably from the efficacies of ligands in the presence of GTP and ITP, and there was no evidence for receptor-regulated XTP hydrolysis. Our findings support the concept of multiple ligand-specific receptor conformations and demonstrate the usefulness of purine nucleotides as tools to study conformational states of receptors. (+info
Identification and characterization of a protozoan uncoupling protein in Acanthamoeba castellanii.
An uncoupling protein (UCP) has been identified in mitochondria from Acanthamoeba castellanii, a nonphotosynthetic soil amoeboid protozoon that, in molecular phylogenesis, appears on a branch basal to the divergence points of plants, animals, and fungi. The existence of UCP in A. castellanii (AcUCP) has been revealed using antibodies raised against plant UCP. Its molecular mass (32,000 Da) was similar to those of plant and mammalian UCPs. The activity of AcUCP has been investigated in mitochondria depleted of free fatty acids. Additions of linoleic acid stimulated state 4 respiration and decreased transmembrane electrical potential (DeltaPsi) in a manner expected from fatty acid cycling-linked H(+) reuptake. The half-maximal stimulation by linoleic acid was reached at 8.1 +/- 0.4 microM. Bovine serum albumin (fatty acid-free), which adsorbs linoleic acid, reversed the respiratory stimulation and correspondingly restored DeltaPsi. AcUCP was only weakly inhibited by purine nucleotides like UCP in plants. A single force-flow relationship has been observed for state 4 respiration with increasing concentration of linoleic acid or of an uncoupler and for state 3 respiration with increasing concentration of oligomycin, indicating that linoleic acid has a pure protonophoric effect. The activity of AcUCP in state 3 has been evidenced by ADP/oxygen atom determination. The discovery of AcUCP indicates that UCPs emerged, as specialized proteins for H(+) cycling, early during phylogenesis before the major radiation of phenotypic diversity in eukaryotes and could occur in the whole eukaryotic world. (+info
Transport function and regulation of mitochondrial uncoupling proteins 2 and 3.
Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) dissipates energy and generates heat by catalyzing back-flux of protons into the mitochondrial matrix, probably by a fatty acid cycling mechanism. If the newly discovered UCP2 and UCP3 function similarly, they will enhance peripheral energy expenditure and are potential molecular targets for the treatment of obesity. We expressed UCP2 and UCP3 in Escherichia coli and reconstituted the detergent-extracted proteins into liposomes. Ion flux studies show that purified UCP2 and UCP3 behave identically to UCP1. They catalyze electrophoretic flux of protons and alkylsulfonates, and proton flux exhibits an obligatory requirement for fatty acids. Proton flux is inhibited by purine nucleotides but with much lower affinity than observed with UCP1. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that UCP2 and UCP3 behave as uncoupling proteins in the cell. (+info
A defect late in stimulus-secretion coupling impairs insulin secretion in Goto-Kakizaki diabetic rats.
A widely accepted genetically determined rodent model for human type 2 diabetes is the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat; however, the lesion(s) in the pancreatic islets of these rats has not been identified. Herein, intact islets from GK rats (aged 8-14 weeks) were studied, both immediately after isolation and after 18 h in tissue culture. Despite intact contents of insulin and protein, GK islets had markedly deficient insulin release in response to glucose, as well as to pure mitochondrial fuels or a non-nutrient membrane-depolarizing stimulus (40 mmol/l K+). In contrast, mastoparan (which activates GTP-binding proteins [GBPs]) completely circumvented any secretory defect. Basal and stimulated levels of adenine and guanine nucleotides, the activation of phospholipase C by Ca2+ or glucose, the secretory response to pertussis toxin, and the activation of selected low-molecular weight GBPs were not impaired. Defects were found, however, in the autophosphorylation and catalytic activity of cytosolic nucleoside diphosphokinase (NDPK), which may provide compartmentalized GTP pools to activate G-proteins; a deficient content of phosphoinositides was also detected. These studies identify novel, heretofore unappreciated, defects late in signal transduction in the islets of our colony of GK rats, possibly occurring at the site of activation by NDPK of a mastoparan-sensitive G-protein-dependent step in exocytosis. (+info
Growth factor-regulated expression of enzymes involved in nucleotide biosynthesis: a novel mechanism of growth factor action.
Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is a potent and specific mitogen for epithelial cells, including the keratinocytes of the skin. We investigated the mechanisms of action of KGF by searching for genes which are regulated by this growth factor in cultured human keratinocytes. Using the differential display RT-PCR technology we identified the gene encoding adenylosuccinate lyase [EC 18.104.22.168] as a novel KGF-regulated gene. Adenylosuccinate lyase plays an important role in purine de novo synthesis. To gain further insight into the potential role of nucleotide biosynthesis in the mitogenic effect of KGF, we cloned cDNA fragments of the key regulatory enzymes involved in purine and pyrimidine metabolism (adenylosuccinate synthetase [EC 22.214.171.124], phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase [EC 126.96.36.199], amidophosphoribosyl transferase [EC 188.8.131.52], hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase [EC 184.108.40.206] and the multifunctional protein CAD which includes the enzymatic activities of carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase II [EC 220.127.116.11], aspartate transcarbamylase [EC 18.104.22.168] and dihydroorotase [EC 22.214.171.124]). Expression of all of these enzymes was upregulated after treatment with KGF and also with epidermal growth factor (EGF), indicating that these mitogens stimulate nucleotide production by induction of these enzymes. To determine a possible in vivo correlation between the expression of KGF, EGF and the enzymes mentioned above, we analysed the expression of the enzymes during cutaneous wound repair, where high levels of these mitogens are present. Indeed, we found a strong mRNA expression of all of these enzymes in the EGF- and KGF-responsive keratinocytes of the hyperproliferative epithelium at the wound edge, indicating that their expression might also be regulated by growth factors during wound healing. (+info
Synthesis of nucleotide antibiotics having N-acyl phosphoramidate linkages.
This paper reports the synthesis of nucleotide antibiotics having N-acyl phosphoramidate linkages. The key reaction, the construction of the N-acyl phosphoramidate linkage was achieved by the reaction of nucleoside 5'-phosphoramidite derivatives with carboxamide derivatives in the presence of 5-(3,5-dinitrophenyl)-1H-tetrazole as a very effective activator. By use of this activator, Phosmidosine was synthesized by condensation of an appropriately protected 8-oxoadenosine 5'-O-phosphoramidite derivative with an N-protected prolinamide derivative. In the case of Agrocin 84, the two P-N bonds were constructed progressively. The N-acyl phosphoramidate linkage at the 5'-position of the ribose moiety was similarly synthesized. After phosphorylation of the amino group of the adenine moiety, a fully protected Agrocin 84 derivative, which would be converted to Agrocin 84, was successfully synthesized. (+info