Comparing pupil function with visual function in patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy.
PURPOSE: To compare pupil function with visual function in patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and age-matched normal control subjects. METHODS: Visual function was assessed by measuring the perceptual thresholds at five central locations in the visual field using automated static perimetry. Pupil function was assessed by recording the pupil responses to a standard intensity light stimulus (size equivalent to a Goldmann V target) presented at the same five locations in the visual field. The extent of the pupil afferent defect in LHON patients was quantified by establishing the relationship between stimulus intensity and the size of the pupil response in normal subjects and then interpolating the equivalent luminance deficit in LHON patients from the size of their pupil responses. RESULTS: At all five locations tested, the pupil responses were significantly reduced in amplitude, and the perceptual thresholds were significantly raised in LHON patients compared with normal control subjects. A nonparametric analysis of perceptual and pupil responses to perithreshold stimuli showed that a stimulus that was not perceived was three times more likely to be followed by a pupil response in a LHON patient than in a normal subject (P < 0.001). A quantitative comparison showed that the visual deficits exceeded the pupil deficits by on average 7.5 dB at all tested locations. CONCLUSIONS: Although both visual and pupil function are abnormal in LHON, there appears to be relative sparing of the pupil afferent fibers. (+info)
Pupil abnormality in amyloidosis with autonomic neuropathy.
Darkness pupil diameters, light reflexes, and redilatation times have been recorded with infrared TV pupillometry in 12 consecutive patients with systemic amyloidosis associated with sensory motor and autonomic neuropathy. Nine of the patients had AL amyloidosis, two had familial amyloidosis associated with a transthyretin abnormality, and one was untyped. The pupils were abnormal in all 12 patients. On the basis of redilatation lag without pupillotonia, six patients had bilateral Horner's syndrome and in one of them amyloid deposits were found in a sympathetic ganglion and in the attached sympathetic chain obtained at necropsy. Four patients had bilateral tonic pupils with light-near dissociation and two had abnormally small pupils with reduced light reactions which could not be characterised. It seems that in patients with systemic amyloidosis generalised autonomic neuropathy is strongly associated with pupil abnormality as shown by tonic reactions with light-near dissociation, by redilatation lag, or by reduced size in darkness. (+info)
Orbital arteriovenous malformation mimicking cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous malformation.
AIMS: Orbital arteriovenous malformations (OAVM) are rare, mostly described with high flow characteristics. Two cases are reported with an OAVM of distinct haemodynamic abnormality. The clinical, angiographic features, and the management considerations are discussed. METHODS: Case review of two patients with dural AVM (DAVM) who presented to referral neuro-ophthalmology and endovascular services because of clinical symptoms and signs consistent with a cavernous sinus dural AVM. RESULTS: In each patient, superselective angiography revealed a small slow flow intraorbital shunt supplied by the ophthalmic artery. The transarterial and transvenous endovascular approaches to treat the malformation were partially successful. Although, the abnormal flow was reduced, complete closure of the DAVM could not be accomplished without significant risk of iatrogenic injury. Neither patient's vision improved after intervention. CONCLUSION: A DAVM in the orbit can cause similar clinical symptoms and signs to those associated with a cavernous sinus DAVM. Even with high resolution magnetic resonance imaging, only superselective angiography can identify this small intraorbital slow flow shunt. The location in the orbital apex and the small size precludes a surgical option for treatment. The transarterial and transvenous embolisation options are limited. (+info)
Multiple functional defects in peripheral autonomic organs in mice lacking muscarinic acetylcholine receptor gene for the M3 subtype.
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors consist of five distinct subtypes and have been important targets for drug development. In the periphery, muscarinic acetylcholine receptors mediate cholinergic signals to autonomic organs, but specific physiological functions of each subtype remain poorly elucidated. Here, we have constructed and analyzed mutant mice lacking the M(3) receptor and have demonstrated that this subtype plays key roles in salivary secretion, pupillary constriction, and bladder detrusor contractions. However, M(3)-mediated signals in digestive and reproductive organs are dispensable, likely because of redundant mechanisms through other muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes or other mediators. In addition, we have found prominent urinary retention only in the male, which indicates a considerable sex difference in the micturition mechanism. Accordingly, this mutant mouse should provide a useful animal model for investigation of human diseases that are affected in the peripheral cholinergic functions. (+info)
Fixed and dilated pupils after trauma, stroke, and previous intracranial surgery: management and outcome.
OBJECTIVES: To clarify whether different causative events (trauma, stroke, intracranial surgery), time of intervention, and treatment mode influence outcome, patients with fixed and dilated pupils (FDPs) in a prospective neurosurgical series were evaluated. METHODS: Ninety nine consecutive patients who presented with or developed one or two FDPs, were split into three groups according to the respective aetiology: 46 patients had a trauma, 41 patients a stroke (subarachnoid or intracerebral haemorrhage), and 12 patients had undergone previous elective intracranial surgery. Appropriate therapy was performed depending on the CT findings. Outcome was classified according to the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS). RESULTS: Overall mortality was 75%. In 15% outcome was unfavourable (GOS 2 and 3), and in 10% favourable (GOS 4, 5) at 24 month follow up. No differences in outcome were found between trauma, stroke, and postelective surgery groups. Unilaterally FDP was associated with a better chance of survival (46% v 13%; p<0.01). Age did not correlate with survival, but younger survivors had a significantly better outcome. Patients in whom an intracranial mass was removed surgically had a 42% survival rate, compared with 8% with conservative treatment (p<0.01). Patients with a shorter delay from FDPs to intervention had a better chance of recovery after trauma and previous intracranial surgery (p<0.05). No patient survived better than a vegetative state, if previous FDPs did not become reactive shortly after therapy. If both pupils became reactive on therapy, the chance of survival was 62%. Of these survivors 42% had a favourable outcome. CONCLUSION: Bilateral restoration of pupillary reactivity shortly after therapy is crucial for survival. Surgical evacuation of an intracranial mass, unilateral FDPs, early intervention, and younger age are related to better chances of survival or recovery. The prognosis of patients with FDPs after trauma, stroke, and previous elective intracranial surgery is similar. (+info)
Involvement of the peripheral nervous system in primary Sjogren's syndrome.
BACKGROUND: Involvement of the peripheral nervous system in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome (SS) has been reported, but its prevalence in neurologically asymptomatic patients is not well known. OBJECTIVE: To assess clinical and neurophysiological features of the peripheral nervous system in patients with primary SS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 39 (38 female) consecutive patients with primary SS, aged 20-81 years (mean 50), with a disease duration of 1-30 years (mean 8) were studied. The peripheral nervous system was evaluated by a questionnaire, physical examination, quantified sensory neurological examination, and neurophysiological measurements (nerve conduction studies). To assess autonomic cardiovascular function an orthostatic challenge test, a Valsalva manoeuvre, a forced respiration test, and pupillography were done. RESULTS: Abnormalities as indicated in the questionnaire were found in 8/39 (21%) patients, while an abnormal neurological examination was found in 7/39 (18%) patients. Abnormalities in quantified sensory neurological examination were found in 22/38 (58%) patients. In 9/39 (23%) patients, neurophysiological signs compatible with a sensory polyneuropathy were found. No differences were found in the autonomic test results, disease duration, serological parameters, or erythrocyte sedimentation rate between the patients with primary SS with and those without evidence of peripheral nervous involvement. CONCLUSION: Subclinical abnormalities of the peripheral nervous system may occur in patients with primary SS selected from a department of rheumatology, but clinically relevant involvement of the peripheral nervous system in this patient group is rare. (+info)
Pupillary autonomic denervation with increasing duration of diabetes mellitus.
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The autonomic pupillary changes in type I and II diabetic patients without clinical evidence of diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) were compared with age matched controls. The relation between pupillary and cardiovascular autonomic function was assessed in the diabetic patients. METHODS: A case-control study was performed with diabetics grouped according to type and duration of diabetes. Static infrared pupillography was used to compare mean dark adapted pupil size and mean percentage changes in pupil size with pilocarpine 0.1% and cocaine 4% in the diabetic and control groups. All diabetic patients underwent cardiovascular autonomic function assessment using the Valsalva ratio, the 30:15 ratio, and testing for orthostatic hypotension. RESULTS: In total, 72 type I and 69 type II diabetic patients were compared with 120 controls. Mean dark adapted pupil size was significantly smaller in diabetic groups than controls. Except for type I diabetics with disease for less than 5 years, all patient groups had significantly greater mean percentage constriction in pupil size in response to dilute pilocarpine than controls. There was no significant difference between the mean percentage dilatation in response to cocaine 4% in diabetics and controls. A high proportion of patients had normal cardiovascular autonomic function particularly when this was assessed with the Valsalva ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Denervation hypersensitivity to dilute pilocarpine is a result of damage to the pupillary parasympathetic supply of diabetic patients. This occurs before the pupillary sympathetic pathway is affected, it can be detected early in the disease, and it may be a possible explanation for the small pupil size seen in diabetic patients. Pupillary autonomic dysfunction occurs before cardiovascular autonomic changes and detection of pupil denervation hypersensitivity to dilute pilocarpine is an inexpensive way to detect early DAN. (+info)
Fibrous congenital iris membranes with pupillary distortion.
BACKGROUND: In 1986 Cibis and associates described 2 children with a new type of congenital pupillary-iris-lens membrane with goniodysgenesis that was unilateral, sporadic, and progressive. These membranes were different from the common congenital pupillary strands that extend from 1 portion of the iris collarette to another or from the iris collarette to a focal opacity on the anterior lens surface. They also differed from the stationary congenital hypertrophic pupillary membranes that partially occlude the pupil, originating from multiple sites on the iris collarette, but not attaching directly to the lens. CASE MATERIAL: The present report is an account of 7 additional infants with congenital iris membranes, similar to those reported by Cibis and associates, which caused pupillary distortion and were variably associated with adhesions to the lens, goniodysgenesis, and progressive occlusion or seclusion of the pupil. Six of the 7 patients required surgery to open their pupils for visual purposes or to abort angle closure glaucoma. A remarkable finding was that the lenses in the area of the newly created pupils were clear, allowing an unobstructed view of normal fundi. CONCLUSION: This type of fibrous congenital iris membrane is important to recognize because of its impact on vision and its tendency to progress toward pupillary occlusion. Timely surgical intervention can abort this progressive course and allow vision to be preserved. (+info)