(1/356) Investigation of the theory and mechanism of the origin of the second heart sound.
To investigate further the origin of the second heart sound we studied human subjects, dogs, and a model in vitro of the cardiovascular system. Intra-arterial sound, pressure, and, where possible, flow and high speed cine (2,000 frames/sec) were utilized. The closure sound of the semilunar valves was of higher amplitude in be ventricles than in their respective arterial cavities. The direction of inscription of the main components of intra-arterial sound were opposite in direction to the components of intraventricular sound. Notches, representative of pressure increments, were noted on the ventricular pressure tracings and were coincident with the components of sound. The amplitude of the closure sound varied with diastolic pressure, but remained unchanged with augmentation of forward and retrograde aortic flow. Cines showed second sound to begin after complete valvular closure, and average leaflet closure rate was constant regardless of pressure. Hence, the semilunar valves, when closed, act as an elastic membrane and, when set into motion, generate compression and expansion of the blood, producing transient pressure changes indicative of sound. The magnitude of the initial stretch is related to the differential pressure between the arterial and ventricular chambers. Sound transients which follow the major components of the second sound appear to be caused by the continuing stretch and recoil of the leaflets. Clinically unexplained findings such as the reduced or absent second sound in calcific aortic stenosis and its paradoxical presence in congenital aortic stenosis may be explained by those observations. (+info)
(2/356) Noninvasive evaluation of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure in patients with acute myocardial infarction by deceleration time of pulmonary venous flow velocity in diastole.
OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the correlation between deceleration time of diastolic pulmonary venous flow (PV-DT) and of early filling mitral flow (LV-DT), and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). BACKGROUND: An earlier study suggests that Doppler-derived LV-DT provides an accurate means of estimating PCWP in postinfarction patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Furthermore, recent studies have suggested that PCWP correlates better with PV-DT than with LV-DT. However, the value of PV-DT and LV-DT for assessment of PCWP in patients with AMI has not been evaluated. METHODS: In 141 consecutive patients with AMI, we measured PV-DT and LV-DT by Doppler echocardiography, and compared these variables with PCWP measured using a Swan-Ganz catheter. RESULTS: There was a weak negative correlation between the LV-DT and PCWP (r = -0.54). Although the sensitivity of < or =130 ms in LV-DT in predicting > or =18 mm Hg in PCWP was high (86%), its specificity was low (59%). On the other hand, a very close negative correlation was found between PV-DT and PCWP (r = -0.89). The sensitivity and specificity of < or =160 ms in PV-DT in predicting > or =18 mm Hg in PCWP were 97% and 96%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with AMI, Doppler-derived PV-DT showed a stronger correlation with PCWP than LV-DT. (+info)
(3/356) Pulmonary ventricular outflow reconstruction with a size-reduced cryopreserved pulmonary valve allograft: mid-term follow-up.
Surgical reduction of pulmonary allografts is being performed because of the shortage of allografts of suitable size for pediatric use. However, the outcome of size-reduced pulmonary allografts for pulmonary conduits is unknown. In the present study, cryopreserved pulmonary allografts harvested from adults at the time of kidney donation were size-reduced and used in 4 children, 2 with pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect and 2 with atrioventricular discordance, pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect. They all had undergone right and/or left modified Blalock-Taussig shunt operations with a 5-mm synthetic graft prior to the reparative operations. They underwent definitive repair with a size-reduced cryopreserved pulmonary allograft valved conduit and were followed up for 2-5 years. Postoperative echocardiographic and cineangiographic assessments revealed excellent function of the pulmonary bicuspidalized valves with a minimal pressure gradient and no, or only trivial, regurgitation. Although the long-term result of a cryopreserved bicuspid pulmonary valved conduit remains unknown, the remodeled bicuspid pulmonary allograft conduits showed excellent hemodynamic characteristics in mid-term follow-up and appear to be a reasonable alternative to other types of conduits when an appropriate-sized allograft is not available. (+info)
(4/356) Accumulation of oxidized LDL in human semilunar valves correlates with coronary atherosclerosis.
OBJECTIVE: Recent data indicate that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) has several proatherogenic effects, e.g. induction of macrophage chemoattractants, adhesion molecules, cytokines, type-1 plasminogen activator inhibitor and platelet-derived growth factor A-chain by smooth muscle cells. Therefore, ox-LDL has been utilized as a marker of oxidative modification of proteins in atherosclerosis. Because heart valves consist of smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts and endothelial cells, and because valvular disease and coronary atherosclerosis could result from similar biological processes, we investigated ox-LDL accumulation in isolated aortic and pulmonary valves and coronary arteries from patients with angiographically proven coronary heart disease (CHD, n = 19), patients with idiopathic congestive heart failure (IDCM = idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, n = 20), and transplant donors. METHODS: Masson-Goldner staining and immunohistochemistry utilizing anti ox-LDL and CD68 were performed on paraffin sections of freshly isolated semilunar valves. Data were analyzed by digital image planimetry and by visual scoring of staining intensity. RESULTS: Ox-LDL immunoreactivity was identified in the vascular aspect of the attachment line, in the deep valve stroma, and in the ventricular and vascular endothelium of the semilunar valves, colocalizing with macrophages. Valvular ox-LDL area was significantly increased in CHD-patients (P < 0.03) and IDCM-patients (P < 0.04) compared with controls. More ox-LDL was accumulating in the pulmonary valves than in the aortic valves (P = 0.04) as assessed by area and staining intensity. Valvular ox-LDL area in pulmonary valve and aortic valve was significantly correlated with ox-LDL accumulation in the intimal layer (P < 0.001) and medial layer (P < 0.001) of coronary arteries from the same patients. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that the biological process leading to ox-LDL accumulation in coronary atherosclerosis also involves heart valves. Therefore, accumulation of the oxidative stress marker ox-LDL in heart valves illustrates atherosclerosis as an additional mechanisms accelerating valvular degeneration in these patients. (+info)
(5/356) The Ross operation: initial Israeli experience.
BACKGROUND: The need for aortic valve replacement in children and young adults poses a special problem to cardiologists and surgeons. Replacing the sick aortic valve with the patient's pulmonary valve as described by Ross has proven to be a good option in this special age group. OBJECTIVE: To review our initial experience in order to assess the short-term results. METHODS: From January 1996 to June 1999, 40 patients (age 8 months to 41 years) underwent aortic valve replacement with pulmonary autograft. Indications for surgery were congenital aortic valve disease in 30 patients, bacterial endocarditis in 5, rheumatic fever in 3, and complex left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in 3. Trans-esophageal echocardiography was performed preoperatively and post-bypass in all patients, and transthoracic echocardiography was done prior to discharge and on follow-up. RESULTS: There was no preoperative or late mortality. All patients remain in functional class I (New York Heart Association) and are free of complications and medication. None showed progression of autograft insufficiency or LVOT obstruction. Homograft insufficiency in the pulmonary position has progressed from mild to moderate in one patient, and three developed mild homograft stenosis. CONCLUSIONS: The Ross procedure can be performed with good results in the young population and is considered an elegant surgical alternative to prosthetic values and homografts. (+info)
(6/356) Transcatheter implantation of a bovine valve in pulmonary position: a lamb study.
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary regurgitation can lead to severe right ventricular dysfunction, which is a delicate postoperative problem in the long-term follow-up of patients who had surgery for congenital heart diseases. Clinical conditions of patients suffering from pulmonary valve incompetence are improved by valve replacement with a prosthetic valve. To date, the surgical approach is the only option to replace a pulmonary valve. We report the first experience of percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation. METHODS AND RESULTS: A fresh bovine jugular vein containing a native valve was sutured into a vascular stent and then cross-linked with a 0.6% glutaraldehyde solution for 36 hours. After being hand-crimped onto a balloon catheter, the device was inserted percutaneously according to standard stent-placing techniques. The valved stent was finally deployed in the position of the native pulmonary valve of the lamb. Hemodynamic evaluation was carried out before and 2 months after implantation. Anatomic evaluation was finally performed. Percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement was successful in 5 lambs. No complications were noted. Early and late angiographic and hemodynamic studies confirmed a good position of the stents with a competent valve at the end of the protocol. One stent was slightly stenotic, with macroscopically visible calcifications. CONCLUSIONS: Nonsurgical implantation of pulmonary valves is possible in the lamb. This new technique is similar to standard stent implantation. Thus, it should be feasible in humans, in whom it will lead to a significant reduction of reoperations in patients in need of pulmonary valve replacement. (+info)
(7/356) Tissue Doppler imaging consistently detects myocardial contraction and relaxation abnormalities, irrespective of cardiac hypertrophy, in a transgenic rabbit model of human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is diagnosed clinically by the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). However, LVH is absent in a significant number of genotype-positive patients. Because myocyte dysfunction and disarray are the primary abnormalities in HCM, we reasoned that tissue Doppler imaging could identify contraction and relaxation abnormalities, irrespective of hypertrophy, in a transgenic rabbit model of human HCM. METHODS AND RESULTS: M-mode, 2D, Doppler echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging were performed in nontransgenic (n=24), wild-type beta-myosin heavy chain-arginine(403) (n=14), and mutant beta-myosin heavy chain-glutamic acid(403) (n=24) transgenic rabbits. Mean septal thicknesses were 2.0+/-0.3, 2.0+/-0.25, and 2.75+/-0.3 mm in the 3 groups, respectively (P:=0.001). LVH was absent in 9 of the 24 mutant rabbits. Left ventricular dimensions, systolic function, heart rate, mitral inflow velocities, and time intervals were similar in the groups. However, the difference between atrial reversal and transmitral A wave duration was increased in the mutant rabbits (P:<0.001). More importantly, systolic and early diastolic tissue Doppler velocities were significantly lower in all mutant rabbits (7.45+/-2.2 versus 10.8+/-2.3 cm/s in nontransgenic and 9. 0+/-0.76 cm/s in wild-type; P:<0.001), including the 9 without LVH. A systolic velocity <8.5 cm/s had an 86% sensitivity and 100% specificity in identifying the mutant transgenic rabbits. CONCLUSIONS: Myocardial contraction and relaxation were reduced in the mutant beta-myosin heavy chain-glutamic acid(403) transgenic rabbit model of human HCM, irrespective of the presence or absence of LVH. In addition, tissue Doppler imaging is more sensitive than conventional echocardiography for HCM screening. (+info)
(8/356) Pulmonary valve replacement in adults late after repair of tetralogy of fallot: are we operating too late?
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to evaluate right ventricular (RV) volume and function after pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) and to address the issue of optimal surgical timing in these patients. BACKGROUND: Chronic pulmonary regurgitation (PR) following repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) leads to RV dilation and an increased incidence of sudden cardiac death in adult patients. METHODS: We studied 25 consecutive adult patients who underwent PVR for significant PR late after repair of TOF. Radionuclide angiography was performed in all at a mean of 8.2 months (+/- 8 months) before PVR and repeated at a mean of 28.0 months (+/- 22.8 months) after the operation. Right ventricular (RV) end-systolic volume (RVESV), RV end-diastolic volume (RVEDV) and RV ejection fraction (RVEF) were measured. RESULTS: Mean RVEDV, RVESV and RVEF remained unchanged after PVR (227.1 ml versus 214.9 ml, p = 0.74; 157.4 ml versus 155.4 ml, p = 0.94; 35.6% versus 34.7%, p = 0.78, respectively). Of the 10 patients with RVEF > or = 0.40 before PVR, 5 patients (50%) maintained a RVEF > or = 0.40 following PVR, whereas only 2 out of 15 patients (13%) with pre-operative values <0.40 reached an RVEF > or = 0.40 postoperatively (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Right ventricular recovery following PVR for chronic significant pulmonary regurgitation after repair of TOF may be compromised in the adult population. In order to maintain adequate RV contractility, pulmonary valve implant in these patients should be considered before RV function deteriorates. (+info)