Surfactant protein A suppresses reactive nitrogen intermediates by alveolar macrophages in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis attaches to, enters, and replicates within alveolar macrophages (AMs). Our previous studies suggest that surfactant protein A (SP-A) can act as a ligand in the attachment of M. tuberculosis to AMs. Reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNIs) play a significant role in the killing of mycobacteria. We have demonstrated that RNI levels generated by AMs were significantly increased when interferon-gamma-primed AMs were incubated with M. tuberculosis. However, the RNI levels were significantly suppressed in the presence of SP-A (10 microg/ml). The specificity of SP-A's effect was demonstrated by the use of F(ab')2 fragments of anti-SP-A monoclonal antibodies and by the use of mannosyl-BSA, which blocked the suppression of RNI levels by SP-A. Furthermore, incubation of deglycosylated SP-A with M. tuberculosis failed to suppress RNI by AMs, suggesting that the oligosaccharide component of SP-A, which binds to M. tuberculosis, is necessary for this effect. These results show that SP-A-mediated binding of M. tuberculosis to AMs significantly decreased RNI levels, suggesting that this may be one mechanism by which M. tuberculosis diminishes the cytotoxic response of activated AMs. (+info
Inhibition of hSP-B promoter in respiratory epithelial cells by a dominant negative retinoic acid receptor.
Retinoic acid (RA) receptors (RARs) belong to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily and play important roles in lung differentiation, growth, and gene regulation. Surfactant protein (SP) B is a small hydrophobic protein synthesized and secreted by respiratory epithelial cells in the lung. Expression of the SP-B gene is modulated at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. In the present work, immunohistochemical staining revealed that RAR-alpha is present on day 14.5 of gestation in the fetal mouse lung. To assess whether RAR is required for SP-B gene transcription, a dominant negative mutant human (h) RAR-alpha403 was generated. The hRAR-alpha403 mutant was transcribed and translated into the truncated protein product by reticulocyte lysate in vitro. The mutant retained DNA binding activity in the presence of retinoid X receptor-gamma to an RA response element in the hSP-B promoter. When transiently transfected into pulmonary adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (H441 cells), the mutant hRAR-alpha403 was readily detected in the cell nucleus. Cotransfection of the mutant hRAR-alpha403 repressed activity of the hSP-B promoter and inhibited RA-induced surfactant proprotein B production in H441 cells, supporting the concept that RAR is required for hSP-B gene transcription in vitro. (+info
Localization of a candidate surfactant convertase to type II cells, macrophages, and surfactant subfractions.
Pulmonary surfactant exists in the alveolus in several distinct subtypes that differ in their morphology, composition, and surface activity. Experiments by others have implicated a serine hydrolase in the production of the inactive small vesicular subtype of surfactant (N. J. Gross and R. M. Schultz. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1044: 222-230, 1990). Our laboratory recently identified this enzyme in the rat as the serine carboxylesterase ES-2 [F. Barr, H. Clark, and S. Hawgood. Am. J. Physiol. 274 (Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 18): L404-L410, 1998]. In the present study, we determined the cellular sites of expression of ES-2 in rat lung using a digoxygenin-labeled ES-2 riboprobe. ES-2 mRNA was localized to type II cells and alveolar macrophages but not to Clara cells. Using a specific ES-2 antibody, we determined the protein distribution of ES-2 in the lung by immunohistochemistry, and it was found to be consistent with the sites of mRNA expression. Most of the ES-2 in rat bronchoalveolar lavage is in the surfactant-depleted supernatant, but ES-2 was also consistently localized to the small vesicular surfactant subfraction presumed to form as a consequence of conversion activity. These results are consistent with a role for endogenous lung ES-2 in surfactant metabolism. (+info
Changes in surfactant-associated protein mRNA profile in growth-restricted fetal sheep.
To test the hypothesis that chronic placental insufficiency resulting in fetal growth restriction causes an increase in fetal lung surfactant-associated protein (SP) gene expression, we embolized chronically catheterized fetal sheep (n = 6) daily using nonradioactive microspheres in the abdominal aorta for 21 days (between 0.74 and 0.88 of gestation) until fetal arterial oxygen content was reduced by approximately 40-50%. Control animals (n = 7) received saline only. Basal fetal plasma cortisol concentration was monitored. At the end of the experiment, fetal lung tissues were collected, and ratios of tissue levels of SP-A, SP-B, and SP-C mRNA to 18S rRNA were determined by standard Northern blot analysis. Total DNA content of fetal lungs was reduced by 30% in the embolized group compared with control group (P = 0.01). There was a 2.7-fold increase in fetal lung SP-A mRNA (P < 0.05) and a 3.2-fold increase in SP-B mRNA (P < 0.01) in the chronically embolized group compared with those in the control group. SP-A and SP-B mRNA tissue levels were highly correlated with the mean fetal plasma cortisol levels on days 20-21 (r = 0.90, P < 0.01 for SP-A mRNA and r = 0.94, P < 0.01 for SP-B mRNA). SP-C mRNA tissue levels were not significantly affected by placental insufficiency. We conclude that fetal growth restriction due to placental insufficiency is associated with alterations in fetal lung SP, suggesting enhanced lung maturation that was highly dependent on the degree of increase in fetal plasma cortisol levels. (+info
Surfactant function and composition after free radical exposure generated by transition metals.
Surfactant dysfunction in acute lung injury has been postulated as a result of free radical damage to lipid and protein components. This study examines whether transition metals with different redox potentials and different binding affinities for lipids and proteins affect interfacial properties differently. Purified whole calf lung surfactant (CLS) was incubated with 0.125 mM Fe2+, Fe3+, Fe3+-EDTA complex, or Cu2+ either alone or with 0.25 mM H2O2 or H2O2 plus 0.25 mM ascorbate for 4 and 24 h. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by measurement of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and free radical-mediated alterations in protein structure were assessed by fluorescamine assay and Western blot analysis. Function was assayed by pulsating bubble surfactometry. Lipid peroxidation was detected in samples incubated with Fe2+, Fe3+, and Fe3+-EDTA but not with Cu2+. All transition metal-based free radical systems affected surfactant protein composition by fluorescamine assay, indicating free radical-mediated modification of protein side chains. Western blot analysis demonstrated surfactant protein A modification, with the generation of higher- and lower-molecular-mass immunoreactive products. Despite biochemical evidence of lipid and protein modification, surfactant dysfunction was minimal and was manifest as an increase in the compression ratio required to achieve surface tension < 1 dyn/cm. This dysfunction was readily reversed by the addition of 5 mM Ca2+ either before or after oxidation. These data indicate that copper- and iron-based free radical-generating systems modify the lipid and protein components of surfactant differently but suggest that these changes have little effect on surfactant function. (+info
Surfactant protein A enhances the binding and deacylation of E. coli LPS by alveolar macrophages.
Surfactant protein (SP) A and SP-D are involved in multiple immunomodulatory functions of innate host defense partly via their interaction with alveolar macrophages (AMs). In addition, both SP-A and SP-D bind to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To investigate the functional significance of this interaction, we first tested the ability of SP-A and SP-D to enhance the binding of tritium-labeled Escherichia coli LPS to AMs. In contrast to SP-D, SP-A enhanced the binding of LPS by AMs in a time-, temperature-, and concentration-dependent manner. Coincubation with surfactant-like lipids did not affect the SP-A-mediated enhancement of LPS binding. At SP-A-to-LPS molar ratios of 1:2-1:3, the LPS binding by AMs reached 270% of control values. Second, we investigated the role of SP-A in regulating the degradation of LPS by AMs. In the presence of SP-A, deacylation of LPS by AMs increased by approximately 2.3-fold. Pretreatment of AMs with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C had no effect on the SP-A-enhanced LPS binding but did reduce the amount of serum-enhanced LPS binding by 50%, suggesting that a cell surface molecule distinct from CD14 mediates the effect of SP-A. Together the results for the first time provide direct evidence that SP-A enhances LPS binding and degradation by AMs. (+info
Artificial reconstituted pulmonary surfactant in prevention and treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in neonates.
AIM: To test an artificial reconstituted pulmonary surfactant (APS) for prevention and treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). METHODS: A membrane-formed method combined with supersonic dispersing was used to prepare APS. A pulsating bubble surface tension measurement was established to compare surface properties of APS with natural pulmonary surfactant (NPS). A preliminary clinical trial was made for prevention and treatment of RDS. RESULTS: The APS reduced surface tension from 44.0 mN/m to < 1.0 mN/m in vitro. The changes of APS lipid contents were < 5% of labeled content at 37 degrees C. Clinical trial showed that the APS prevented RDS in 20/20 and cured RDS in 2/2 premature neonates. CONCLUSION: The APS had good surface properties similar to NPS. (+info
C1qRP is a heavily O-glycosylated cell surface protein involved in the regulation of phagocytic activity.
C1q, mannose-binding lectin (MBL), and pulmonary surfactant protein A (SPA) interact with human monocytes and macrophages, resulting in the enhancement of phagocytosis of suboptimally opsonized targets. mAbs that recognize a cell surface molecule of 126,000 Mr, designated C1qRP, have been shown to inhibit C1q- and MBL-mediated enhancement of phagocytosis. Similar inhibition of the SPA-mediated enhancement of phagocytosis by these mAbs now suggests that C1qRP is a common component of a receptor for these macromolecules. Ligation of human monocytes with immobilized R3, a IgM mAb recognizing C1qRP, also triggers enhanced phagocytic capacity of these cells in the absence of ligand, verifying the direct involvement of this polypeptide in the regulation of phagocytosis. While the cDNA for C1qRP encodes a 631 amino acid membrane protein, Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with the cDNA of the C1qRP coding region express a surface glycoprotein with the identical 126,000 Mr in SDS-PAGE as the native C1qRP. Use of glycosylation inhibitors, cleavage of the mature C1qRP with specific glycosidases, and in vitro translation of C1qRP cDNA demonstrated that both posttranslational glycosylation and the nature of the amino acid sequence of the protein contribute to the difference between its predicted m.w. and its migration on SDS-PAGE. These results verify that the cDNA cloned codes for the mature C1qRP, that C1qRP contains a relatively high degree of O-linked glycoslyation, and that C1qRP cross-linked directly by monoclonal anti-C1qRP or engaged as a result of cell surface ligation of SPA, as well as C1q and MBL, enhances phagocytosis. (+info