Intersubunit disulfide bridge is not required for the protective role of SP-B against lung inflammation.
Surfactant protein B (SP-B) is known to promote surfactant phospholipid film formation and reduce surface tension. Native SP-B is a homodimer in which subunit association is stabilized via covalent linkage through cysteine 48. We hypothesized that loss of the intersubunit bridge would alter SP-B function and lead to increased inflammation in response to challenge by hyperoxia or endotoxin. Transgenic mice in which SP-B cysteine 48 was mutated to serine were generated and crossed into the SP-B(-/-) background. Wild-type mice and transgenic mice carrying a single copy (SP-Bmon(+)) or two copies (SP-Bmon(++)) of the transgene were exposed to 95% O2 for 3 days or intratracheally injected with 10 microg of endotoxin. Interleukin-1beta, major intrinsic protein 2, and interleukin-6 in lung homogenates after 3 days of hyperoxia were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in SP-Bmon(+) mice than SP-Bmon(++) or wild-type mice. At 16 h after endotoxin injection, cytokines in lung tissues were higher in SP-Bmon(+) mice compared with wild-type mice (P < 0.05). Consistent with prolonged recovery in SP-Bmon(+) mice, the percentage of apoptotic cells in alveolar lavage was significantly lower in SP-Bmon(+) mice than in SP-Bmon(++) and wild-type mice. Overall, increased inflammation in SP-Bmon(+) mice was corrected to a large extent by increased gene dosage, indicating that formation of the intersubunit disulfide bridge is not critical for SP-B function. (+info)
Transforming growth factor-beta inhibits pulmonary surfactant protein B gene transcription through SMAD3 interactions with NKX2.1 and HNF-3 transcription factors.
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) represses surfactant protein B (Sp-B) gene transcription through a mechanism that remains unknown. A homeodomain and a forkhead transcription factor, NKX2.1 and HNF-3, respectively, are known activators of Sp-B transcription. Because SMADs are the effectors of TGF-beta-induced gene activation, we examined the possibility that gene repression by TGF-beta may also occur through interactions of SMADs with NKX2.1 and HNF-3. We found that lung epithelial carcinoma H441 cells contain SMAD2/3 and -4, which localize to the nucleus in response to TGF-beta treatment. The activity of a transfected Sp-B promoter/reporter construct was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by TGF-beta. Cotransfection with a mutant, constitutively activated form of the Tgf-beta type I receptor repressed Sp-B promoter activity in the absence of TGF-beta ligand. Dominant negative mutants of Smads blocked the repressor activity of TGF-beta. SMAD3, but not SMAD2, mediated the repressor activity of TGF-beta on the Sp-B promoter. Mutations within a 70-base pair domain that includes binding sites for NKX2.1, hepatocyte nuclear factor 3 (HNF-3), or cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) eliminated SMAD3-dependent repression of Sp-B transcription. Electrophoretic mobility shift analysis showed no evidence for direct binding of SMAD3 to the Sp-B promoter, and a DNA binding mutant of SMAD3 also repressed Sp-B, suggesting that direct DNA binding of SMAD3 may not be required. Using a mammalian two hybrid assay, we found physical and functional interactions between SMAD3 and both NKX2.1 and HNF-3. Also, a glutathione S-transferase-fused SMAD3 directly binds to in vitro synthesized NKX2.1 or HNF-3, demonstrating protein-protein interactions between SMAD3 and the two transcriptional factors. The DNA binding of NKX2.1 to Sp-B promoter was reduced in response to TGF-beta treatment, although expression of Nkx2.1 was not affected. We conclude that SMAD3 interactions with the positive regulators NKX2.1 and HNF-3 underlie the molecular basis for TGF-beta-induced repression of Sp-B gene transcription. (+info)
Effect of hydrophobic surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C on phospholipid monolayers. Protein structure studied using 2D IR and beta correlation analysis.
We have applied two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) and betanu correlation spectroscopy to in-situ IR spectroscopy of pulmonary surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C in lipid-protein monolayers at the air-water interface. For both SP-B and SP-C, a statistical windowed autocorrelation method identified two separate surface pressure regions that contained maximum amide I intensity changes: 4-25 mN/m and 25-40 mN/m. For SP-C, 2D IR and betanu correlation analyses of these regions indicated that SP-C adopts a variety of secondary structure conformations, including alpha-helix, beta-sheet, and an intermolecular aggregation of extended beta-sheet structure. The main alpha-helix band split into two peaks at high surface pressures, indicative of two different helix conformations. At low surface pressures, all conformations of the SP-C molecule reacted identically to increasing surface pressure and reoriented in phase with each other. Above 25 mN/m, however, the increasing surface pressure selectively affected the coexisting protein conformations, leading to an independent reorientation of the protein conformations. The asynchronous 2D IR spectrum of SP-B showed the presence of two alpha-helix components, consistent with two separate populations of alpha-helix in SP-B-a hydrophobic fraction associated with the lipid chains and a hydrophilic fraction parallel to the membrane surface. The distribution of correlation intensity between the two alpha-helix cross peaks indicated that the more hydrophobic helix fraction predominates at low surface pressures whereas the more hydrophilic helix fraction predominates at high surface pressures. The different SP-B secondary structures reacted identically to increasing surface pressure, leading to a reorientation of all SP-B subunits in phase with one another. (+info)
Differences in N-linked glycosylation between human surfactant protein-B variants of the C or T allele at the single-nucleotide polymorphism at position 1580: implications for disease.
Human surfactant protein-B (SP-B), a hydrophobic protein, is essential for normal lung function. SP-B is expressed and secreted by specific lung cell types, i.e. alveolar type II and Clara cells, of the respiratory epithelium. The SP-B precursor (42 kDa) undergoes post-translational processing to generate an 8 kDa mature SP-B. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at nucleotide 1580 (C/T) in exon 4 of SP-B that changes amino acid 131 from threonine to isoleucine (Thr131-->Ile) is associated with several pulmonary diseases. The Thr131-->Ile substitution can eliminate a potential N-linked glycosylation site, Asn129-Gln-Thr131, which is present in the SP-B variant of the C allele (ACT/Thr) but not in that of the T allele (ATT/Ile). To determine whether the C allele SP-B variant is indeed glycosylated at Asn(129)-Gln-Thr131, we first generated stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary cell lines that expressed each version of SP-B, and developed specific SP-B polyclonal anti-peptide antibodies. Using both the stably transfected cell lines and fetal lung explants, we observed that the C allele variant is indeed glycosylated at the Asn129-Gln-Thr131 site, whereas the T allele variant, which served as a control, is not. In addition, we also confirmed that both SP-B variants contain another N-linked glycosylation site, Asn311-Ser-Ser313. Given its association with several pulmonary diseases, this finding provides useful information for future studies in disease systems associated with this SNP. Further, we speculate that, given the fact that this SNP is found frequently in the general population, N-linked glycosylation at residue Asn129 interferes with SP-B processing, secretion and folding under certain disease conditions. (+info)
Content-dependent activity of lung surfactant protein B in mixtures with lipids.
The content-dependent activity of surfactant protein (SP)-B was studied in mixtures with dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), synthetic lipids (SL), and purified phospholipids (PPL) from calf lung surfactant extract (CLSE). At fixed SP-B content, adsorption and dynamic surface tension lowering were ordered as PPL/SP-B approximately SL/SP-B > DPPC/SP-B. All mixtures were similar in having increased surface activity as SP-B content was incrementally raised from 0.05 to 0.75% by weight. SP-B had small but measurable effects on interfacial properties even at very low levels < or =0.1% by weight. PPL/SP-B (0.75%) had the highest adsorption and dynamic surface activity, approaching the behavior of CLSE. All mixtures containing 0.75% SP-B reached minimum surface tensions <1 mN/m in pulsating bubble studies at low phospholipid concentration (1 mg/ml). Mixtures of PPL or SL with SP-B (0.5%) also had minimum surface tensions <1 mN/m at 1 mg/ml, whereas DPPC/SP-B (0.5%) reached <1 mN/m at 2.5 mg/ml. Physiological activity also was strongly dependent on SP-B content. The ability of instilled SL/SP-B mixtures to improve surfactant-deficient pressure-volume mechanics in excised lavaged rat lungs increased as SP-B content was raised from 0.1 to 0.75% by weight. This study emphasizes the crucial functional activity of SP-B in lung surfactants. Significant differences in SP-B content between exogenous surfactants used to treat respiratory disease could be associated with substantial activity variations. (+info)
Fibrinolysis-inhibitory capacity of clot-embedded surfactant is enhanced by SP-B and SP-C.
Incorporation of pulmonary surfactant into fibrin inhibits its plasmic degradation. In the present study we investigated the influence of surfactant proteins (SP)-A, SP-B, and SP-C on the fibrinolysis-inhibitory capacity of surfactant phospholipids. Plasmin-induced fibrinolysis was quantified by means of a (125)I-fibrin plate assay, and surfactant incorporation into polymerizing fibrin was analyzed by measuring the incorporation of (3)H-labeled L-alpha-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine into the insoluble clot material. Incorporation of a calf lung surfactant extract (Alveofact) and an organic extract of natural rabbit large surfactant aggregates (LSA) into a fibrin clot revealed a stronger inhibitory effect on plasmic cleavage of this clot than a synthetic phospholipid mixture (PLX) and unprocessed LSA. Reconstitution of PLX with SP-B and SP-C increased, whereas reconstitution with SP-A decreased, the fibrinolysis-inhibitory capacity of the phospholipids. The SP-B effect was paralleled by an increased incorporation of phospholipids into fibrin. We conclude that the inhibitory effect of surfactant incorporation into polymerizing fibrin on its susceptibility to plasmic cleavage is enhanced by SP-B and SP-C but reduced by SP-A. In the case of SP-B, increased phospholipid incorporation may underlie this finding. (+info)
Serum levels of CC16, SP-A and SP-B reflect tobacco-smoke exposure in asymptomatic subjects.
Since the 16-kDa bronchiolar Clara cell protein (CC16) and the alveolar surfactant-associated proteins (SP)-A and -B leak into the circulation when parenchymal health is disturbed, the aim of this study was to determine whether their serum levels could serve as early peripheral markers of tobacco smoke-induced epithelial injury. Sixty-nine (51 yrs (32-54) median (25-75th percentile)) nonsmokers and 54 (42 yrs (31-53)) asymptomatic smokers were enrolled in the study. Serum levels of SP-A did not differ between subjects (270 (208-389) versus 259 (168-392) microg x L(-1)), however, CC16 levels decreased (10.6 (8.7-14.6) versus 7.6 (6.0-11.2) microg x L(-1)) and SP-B levels increased (2,529 (2,091-2,943) versus 3,053 (2,613-4,188) microg x L(-1)) in the smokers. When tobacco smoke exposure, serum creatinine (renal index), age and sex were used as independent variables, CC16 was negatively influenced by cumulative smoking and positively influenced by age. SP-A and -B were negatively influenced by creatinine and positively influenced by cumulative smoking. Serum SP-B was inversely correlated with forced expiratory volume in one second/vital capacity, suggesting an association between obstructive disease and parenchymal lung health. The authors suggest that serum surfactant-associated proteins-A and -B reflect increased alveolocapillary leakage whereas Clara cell secretory protein 16 reflects tobacco smoke-induced Clara cell toxicity. Their evaluation may allow the effects of tobacco smoke on different levels of the respiratory tract, cellular toxicity and epithelial leakage to be distinguished. (+info)
High serum concentrations of surfactant protein A in usual interstitial pneumonia compared with non-specific interstitial pneumonia.
BACKGROUND: The pathological diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases (ILD) by surgical lung biopsy is important for clinical decision making. There is a need, however, to use serum markers for differentiating usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) from other ILD. Surfactant protein (SP)-A, SP-D, KL-6, sialyl SSEA-1 (SLX), and sialyl Lewis(a) (CA19-9) are useful markers for the diagnosis and evaluation of activity of ILD. We have investigated the usefulness of these proteins as markers of UIP. METHODS: Serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid levels of the above five markers were measured in 57 patients with various forms of ILD (19 with UIP, 12 with non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), eight with bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia (BOOP), and 10 with sarcoidosis), eight patients with the control disease (diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB)), and nine healthy volunteers. RESULTS: Serum levels of SP-A, SP-D, and KL-6 in patients with UIP and NSIP were significantly higher than in healthy volunteers. In particular, the serum levels of SP-A in patients with UIP were significantly higher than in patients with NSIP (p<0.0001, mean difference -58.3 ng/ml, 95% confidence interval -81.6 to -35.0), and BAL fluid levels of SP-D in patients with UIP were significantly lower than in patients with NSIP (p=0.01, mean difference 322.4 ng/ml, 95% confidence interval 79.3 to 565.5). CONCLUSION: Serum SP-A levels may be clinically useful as a biomarker to differentiate between UIP and NSIP. (+info)