Mechanical stretching of alveolar epithelial cells increases Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity.
Alveolar epithelial cells effect edema clearance by transporting Na(+) and liquid out of the air spaces. Active Na(+) transport by the basolaterally located Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase is an important contributor to lung edema clearance. Because alveoli undergo cyclic stretch in vivo, we investigated the role of cyclic stretch in the regulation of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in alveolar epithelial cells. Using the Flexercell Strain Unit, we exposed a cell line of murine lung epithelial cells (MLE-12) to cyclic stretch (30 cycles/min). After 15 min of stretch (10% mean strain), there was no change in Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, as assessed by (86)Rb(+) uptake. By 30 min and after 60 min, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity was significantly increased. When cells were treated with amiloride to block amiloride-sensitive Na(+) entry into cells or when cells were treated with gadolinium to block stretch-activated, nonselective cation channels, there was no stimulation of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity by cyclic stretch. Conversely, cells exposed to Nystatin, which increases Na(+) entry into cells, demonstrated increased Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity. The changes in Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity were paralleled by increased Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase protein in the basolateral membrane of MLE-12 cells. Thus, in MLE-12 cells, short-term cyclic stretch stimulates Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, most likely by increasing intracellular Na(+) and by recruitment of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase subunits from intracellular pools to the basolateral membrane. (+info)
Effects of potassium channel blockers on CO2-induced slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptor inhibition.
In anesthetized, artificially ventilated rabbits with vagus nerve section, inhalation of CO(2) gas mixtures (tracheal CO(2) concentration ranging from 8.0 to 10.2%) for 60 s decreased slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptor (SAR) activity during both inflation and deflation. The magnitude of decreased receptor activity during deflation had a more pronounced effect than that seen during inflation. CO(2) inhalation did not cause any significant change in tracheal pressure (P(T)) as an index of bronchomotor tone. Intravenous administration of 4-aminopyridine (0. 7 and 2.0 mg/kg i.v.), a K(+) channel blocker, which dose-dependently increased SAR activity during deflation and had no effect on P(T), abolished or attenuated the decrease in SAR activities induced by CO(2) inhalation in a dose-dependent manner. The K(+) channel blocker tetraethylammonium (2.0 and 6.0 mg/kg i.v.) that did not significantly alter either basal SAR discharge or P(T) had no effect on the inhibitory responses of receptor activity to CO(2) inhalation. These results suggest that the inhibitory mechanism of CO(2) inhalation on SARs may be involved in the activation of 4-aminopyridine-sensitive K(+) channels in the nerve terminals of SARs. (+info)
Pulmonary stretch receptor discharges and vagal regulation of respiration differ between two mouse strains.
1. Experiments were performed on adult pentobarbitone-anaesthetized mice of the OF1 and the C3H/HeJ (C3H) strains, to analyse the regulation of respiration by pulmonary stretch receptors (PSRs). 2. Although the mean respiratory period, inspiratory and expiratory durations, and tidal volume did not differ significantly between the two strains, the inspiratory onset was drastically inhibited in OF1 mice but only slightly inhibited in C3H mice in response to tracheal occlusion performed at the very end of inspiration. 3. Low current electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve induced inspiratory onset inhibition in both strains, suggesting that the weak inspiratory onset inhibition elicited by tracheal occlusion in C3H mice did not originate from a low sensitivity of the respiratory centres to PSRs. 4. During normal respiration, PSR firing rate increased with tidal volume, but reached significantly higher values in OF1 than C3H mice. During tracheal occlusion, PSR firing rate was significantly higher at the end of inspiration and during the first third of the occlusion period in OF1 than C3H mice. 5. The airway pressure resistance was significantly higher in OF1 than C3H mice. After abolishing the tracheo-bronchial muscle tone with atropine in OF1 mice, tracheal occlusions induced weak inspiratory onset inhibitions resembling the C3H mouse responses. 6. The possibility that differences in tracheo-bronchial tone between OF1 and C3H mice may lead to a greater PSR discharge and thus to a powerful inhibition on the OF1 medullary respiratory centres during tracheal occlusion is discussed. (+info)
Information theoretic analysis of pulmonary stretch receptor spike trains.
Primary afferent neurons transduce physical, continuous stimuli into discrete spike trains. Investigators have long been interested in interpreting the meaning of the number or pattern of action potentials in attempts to decode the spike train back into stimulus parameters. Pulmonary stretch receptors (PSRs) are visceral mechanoreceptors that respond to deformation of the lungs and pulmonary tree. They provide the brain stem with feedback that is used by cardiorespiratory control circuits. In anesthetized, paralyzed, artificially ventilated rabbits, we recorded the action potential trains of individual PSRs while continuously manipulating ventilator rate and volume. We describe an information theoretic-based analytical method for evaluating continuous stimulus and spike train data that is of general applicability to any continuous, dynamic system. After adjusting spike times for conduction velocity, we used a sliding window to discretize the stimulus (average tracheal pressure) and response (number of spikes), and constructed co-occurrence matrices. We systematically varied the number of categories into which the stimulus and response were evenly divided at 26 different sliding window widths (5, 10, 20, 30,..., 230, 240, 250 ms). Using the probability distributions defined by the co-occurrence matrices, we estimated associated stimulus, response, joint, and conditional entropies, from which we calculated information transmitted as a fraction of the maximum possible, as well as encoding and decoding efficiencies. We found that, in general, information increases rapidly as the sliding window width increases from 5 to approximately 50 ms and then saturates as observation time increases. In addition, the information measures suggest that individual PSRs transmit more "when" than "what" type of information about the stimulus, based on the finding that the maximum information at a given window width was obtained when the stimulus was divided into just a few (usually <6) categories. Our results indicate that PSRs provide quite reliable information about tracheal pressure, with each PSR conveying about 31% of the maximum possible information about the dynamic stimulus, given our analytical parameters. When the stimulus and response are divided into more categories, slightly less information is transmitted, and this quantity also saturates as a function of observation time. We consider and discuss the importance of information contained in window widths on the time scales of an excitatory postsynaptic potential and Hering-Breuer reflex central delay. (+info)
Effect of pulmonary stretch receptor feedback and CO(2) on upper airway and respiratory pump muscle activity in the rat.
1. Our purpose was to examine the effects of chemoreceptor stimulation and lung inflation on neural drive to tongue protrudor and retractor muscles in the rat. 2. Inspiratory flow, tidal volume, transpulmonary pressure, compliance and electromyographic (EMG) activity of genioglossus (GG), hyoglossus (HG) and inspiratory intercostal (IIC) muscles were studied in 11 anaesthetized, tracheotomized and spontaneously breathing rats. Mean EMG activity during inspiration was compared with mean EMG activity during an occluded inspiration, at each of five levels of inspired CO(2) (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 %). 3. Lung inflation suppressed EMG activity in all muscles, with the effect on both tongue muscles exceeding that of the intercostal muscles. Static elevations of end-expiratory lung volume evoked by 2 cmH(2)O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) had no effect on tongue muscle activity. 4. Despite increasing inspiratory flow, tidal volume and transpulmonary pressure, the inhibition of tongue muscle activity by lung inflation diminished as arterial PCO2 (P(a),CO(2)) increased. 5. The onset of tongue muscle activity relative to the onset of IIC muscle activity advanced with increases in P(a),CO(2) but was unaffected by lung inflation. This suggests that hypoglossal and external intercostal motoneuron pools are controlled by different circuits or have different sensitivities to CO(2), lung inflation and/or anaesthetic agents. 6. We conclude that hypoglossal motoneuronal activity is more strongly influenced by chemoreceptor-mediated facilitation than by lung volume-mediated inhibition. Hypoglossal motoneurons driving tongue protrudor and retractor muscles respond identically to these stimuli. (+info)
PET(CO(2)) inversely affects MSNA response to orthostatic stress.
Arterial hypocapnia has been associated with orthostatic intolerance. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that hypocapnia may be detrimental to increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and total peripheral resistance (TPR) during head-up tilt (HUT). Ventilation was increased approximately 1.5 times above baseline for each of three conditions, whereas end-tidal PCO(2) (PET(CO(2))) was clamped at normocapnic (Normo), hypercapnic (Hyper; +5 mmHg relative to Normo), and hypocapnic (Hypo; -5 mmHg relative to Normo) conditions. MSNA (microneurography), heart rate, blood pressure (BP, Finapres), and cardiac output (Q, Doppler) were measured continuously during supine rest and 45 degrees HUT. The increase in heart rate when changing from supine to HUT (P < 0.001) was not different across PET(CO(2)) conditions. MSNA burst frequency increased similarly with HUT in all conditions (P < 0.05). However, total MSNA and the increase in total amplitude relative to baseline (%DeltaMSNA) increased more when changing to HUT during Hypo compared with Hyper (P < 0.05). Both BP and Q were higher during Hyper than both Normo and Hypo (main effect; P < 0.05). Therefore, the MSNA response to HUT varied inversely with levels of PET(CO(2)). The combined data suggest that augmented cardiac output with hypercapnia sustained blood pressure during HUT leading to a diminished sympathetic response. (+info)
Effects of potassium channel and Na+-Ca2+ exchange blockers on the responses of slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptors to hyperinflation in flecainide-treated rats.
1. The effects of K(+) channel blockers, such as 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and tetraethylammonium (TEA), and a reverse-mode Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchange blocker, 2-[2-[4-(4-nitrobenzyloxyl) phenyl] ethyl] isothiourea methanesulphonate (KB-R7943), on the responses of slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptor activity to hyperinflation (inflation volume=3 tidal volumes) were investigated in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated, unilaterally vagotomized rats after pretreatment with a Na(+) channel blocker flecainide. The administration of flecainide (9 mg kg(-1)) at a dose greater than that which abolished 50 microg kg(-1) veratridine-induced SAR stimulation also inhibited hyperinflation-induced stimulation of SARs. 2. In flecainide-treated animals, administration of 4-AP (0.7 and 2 mg kg(-1)) stimulated SAR activity during normal inflation and also caused a partial blockade of hyperinflation-induced SAR inhibition. 3. The discharges of SARs during normal inflation in flecainide-treated animals were not significantly altered by administration of either TEA (2 and 7 mg kg(-1)) or KB-R7943 (1 and 3 mg kg(-1)), but both K(+) channel and Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchange blockers partially attenuated hyperinflation-induced SAR inhibition. 4. These results suggest that hyperinflation-induced SAR inhibition in the presence of flecainide (9 mg kg(-1)) involves the activation of several K(+) conductance pathways. (+info)
A mathematical model of CO2 effect on cardiovascular regulation.
The effect of changes in arterial CO2 tension on the cardiovascular system is analyzed by means of a mathematical model. The model is an extension of a previous one that already incorporated the main reflex and local mechanisms triggered by O2 changes. The new aspects covered by the model are the O2-CO2 interaction at the peripheral chemoreceptors, the effect of local CO2 changes on peripheral resistances, the direct central neural system (CNS) response to CO2, and the control of central chemoreceptors on ventilation and tidal volume. A statistical comparison between model simulation results and various experimental data has been performed. This comparison suggests that the model is able to simulate the acute cardiovascular response to changes in blood gas content in a variety of conditions (normoxic hypercapnia, hypercapnia during artificial ventilation, hypocapnic hypoxia, and hypercapnic hypoxia). The model ascribes the observed responses to the complex superimposition of many mechanisms simultaneously working (baroreflex, peripheral chemoreflex, CNS response, lung-stretch receptors, local gas tension effect), which may be differently activated depending on the specific stimulus under study. However, although some experiments can be reproduced using a single basal set of parameters, reproduction of other experiments requires a different combination of the mechanism strengths (particularly, a different strength of the local CO2 mechanism on peripheral resistances and of the CNS response to CO2). Starting from these results, some assumptions to explain the striking differences reported in the literature are presented. The model may represent a valid support for the interpretation of physiological data on acute cardiovascular regulation and may favor the synthesis of contradictory results into a single theoretical setting. (+info)