Effect of intravenous dextran 70 and pneumatic leg compression on incidence of postoperative pulmonary embolism.
The incidence of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis was measured in 50 matched pairs of patients undergoing common surgical procedures with preoperative and postoperative ventilation-perfusion lung scans and the fibrinogen uptake test. One patient in each pair was treated with intravenous dextran 70 and pneumatic leggings. The incidence of pulmonary embolism among the treated patients was significantly reduced from 24% to 8%, but the incidence of deep vein thrombosis was not significantly reduced (34% to 24%). (+info)
Late massive haemoptyses from bronchopulmonary collaterals in infarcted segments following pulmonary embolism.
Massive, recurrent haemoptyses requiring blood transfusions occurred in a patient who had been diagnosed as having pulmonary thromboembolism 3 months earlier. To the authors' knowledge this is the first case report of this kind, in which massive haemoptyses were proved to be caused by large bronchopulmonary collaterals that had developed in the infarcted lung segments affected by embolism. Selective embolization of the collaterals proved to be therapeutic and life saving. (+info)
Pulmonary embolism: one-year follow-up with echocardiography doppler and five-year survival analysis.
BACKGROUND: The long-term prognosis for patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) is dependent on the underlying disease, degree of pulmonary hypertension (PH), and degree of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. A precise description of the time course of pulmonary artery pressure (PAsP)/RV function is therefore of importance for the early identification of persistent PH/RV dysfunction in patients treated for acute PE. Other objectives were to identify variables associated with persistent PH/RV dysfunction and to analyze the 5-year survival rate for patients alive 1 month after inclusion. METHODS AND RESULTS: Echocardiography Doppler was performed in 78 patients with acute PE at the time of diagnosis and repeatedly during the next year. A 5-year survival analysis was made. The PAsP decreased exponentially until the beginning of a stable phase, which was 50 mm Hg at the time of diagnosis of acute PE was associated with persistent PH after 1 year. The 5-year mortality rate was associated with underlying disease. Only patients with persistent PH in the stable phase required pulmonary thromboendarterectomy within 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: An echocardiography Doppler investigation performed 6 weeks after diagnosis of acute PE can identify patients with persistent PH/RV dysfunction and may be of value in planning the follow-up and care of these patients. (+info)
A strategy for reducing maternal mortality.
A confidential system of enquiry into maternal mortality was introduced in Malaysia in 1991. The methods used and the findings obtained up to 1994 are reported below and an outline is given of the resulting recommendations and actions. (+info)
A comparison of three months of anticoagulation with extended anticoagulation for a first episode of idiopathic venous thromboembolism.
BACKGROUND: Patients who have a first episode of venous thromboembolism in the absence of known risk factors for thrombosis (idiopathic thrombosis) are often treated with anticoagulant therapy for three months. Such patients may benefit from longer treatment, however, because they appear to have an increased risk of recurrence after anticoagulant therapy is stopped. METHODS: In this double-blind study, we randomly assigned patients who had completed 3 months of anticoagulant therapy for a first episode of idiopathic venous thromboembolism to continue receiving warfarin, with the dose adjusted to achieve an international normalized ratio of 2.0 to 3.0, or to receive placebo for a further 24 months. Our goal was to determine the effects of extended anticoagulant therapy on rates of recurrent symptomatic venous thromboembolism and bleeding. RESULTS: A prespecified interim analysis of efficacy led to the early termination of the trial after 162 patients had been enrolled and followed for an average of 10 months. Of 83 patients assigned to continue to receive placebo, 17 had a recurrent episode of venous thromboembolism (27.4 percent per patient-year), as compared with 1 of 79 patients assigned to receive warfarin (1.3 percent per patient-year, P<0.001). Warfarin resulted in a 95 percent reduction in the risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism (95 percent confidence interval, 63 to 99 percent). Three patients assigned to the warfarin group had nonfatal major bleeding (two had gastrointestinal bleeding and one genitourinary bleeding), as compared with none of those assigned to the placebo group (3.8 vs. 0 percent per patient-year, P=0.09). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with a first episode of idiopathic venous thromboembolism should be treated with anticoagulant agents for longer than three months. (+info)
Spiral computed tomographic scanning and magnetic resonance angiography for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism.
PURPOSE: To compare prospectively the accuracy of spiral computed tomography (CT) with that of ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy for diagnosing pulmonary embolism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Within 48 hours of presentation, 142 patients suspected of having pulmonary embolism underwent spiral CT, scintigraphy, and (when indicated) pulmonary angiography. Pulmonary angiography was attempted if interpretations of spiral CT scans and of scintigrams were discordant or indeterminate and intermediate-probability, respectively. RESULTS: In the 139 patients who completed the study, interpretations of spiral CT scans and of scintigrams were concordant in 103 patients (29 with embolism, 74 without). In 20 patients, intermediate-probability scintigrams were interpreted (six with embolism at angiography, 14 without); diagnosis with spiral CT was correct in 16. Interpretations of spiral CT scans and those of scintigrams were discordant in 12 cases; diagnosis with spiral CT was correct in 11 cases and that with scintigraphy was correct in one. Spiral CT and scintigraphic scans of four patients with embolism did not show embolism. Sensitivities, specificities, and kappa values with spiral CT and scintigraphy were 87%, 95%, and 0.85 and 65%, 94%, and 0.61, respectively. CONCLUSION: In cases of pulmonary embolism, sensitivity of spiral CT is greater than that of scintigraphy. Interobserver agreement is better with spiral CT. (+info)
Usefulness of D-dimer, blood gas, and respiratory rate measurements for excluding pulmonary embolism.
BACKGROUND: A study was undertaken to assess the usefulness of the SimpliRED D-dimer test, arterial oxygen tension, and respiratory rate measurement for excluding pulmonary embolism (PE) and venous thromboembolism (VTE). METHODS: Lung scans were performed in 517 consecutive medical inpatients with suspected acute PE over a one year period. Predetermined end points for objectively diagnosed PE in order of precedence were (1) a post mortem diagnosis, (2) a positive pulmonary angiogram, (3) a high probability ventilation perfusion lung scan when the pretest probability was also high, and (4) the unanimous opinion of an adjudication committee. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) was diagnosed by standard ultrasound and venography. RESULTS: A total of 40 cases of PE and 37 cases of DVT were objectively diagnosed. The predictive value of a negative SimpliRED test for excluding objectively diagnosed PE was 0.99 (error rate 2/249), that of PaO2 of > or = 80 mm Hg (10.7 kPa) was 0.97 (error rate 5/160), and that of a respiratory rate of < or = 20/min was 0.95 (error rate 14/308). The best combination of findings for excluding PE was a negative SimpliRED test and PaO2 > or = 80 mm Hg, which gave a predictive value of 1.0 (error rate 0/93). The predictive value of a negative SimpliRED test for excluding VTE was 0.98 (error rate 5/249). CONCLUSIONS: All three of these observations are helpful in excluding PE. When any two parameters were normal, PE was very unlikely. In patients with a negative SimpliRED test and PaO2 of > or = 80 mm Hg a lung scan is usually unnecessary. Application of this approach for triage in the preliminary assessment of suspected PE could lead to a reduced rate of false positive diagnoses and considerable resource savings. (+info)
Flitting radiographic shadows: an unusual presentation of cancer in the lungs.
Tumour involvement of pulmonary blood vessels occurs frequently in advanced lung cancer and occasionally may cause pulmonary infarction. A case is reported of diffuse obstruction of pulmonary arteries by cancer in which no primary tumour was found, and which presented as flitting radiographic opacities due to pulmonary infarction. (+info)