Longitudinal study of behaviour disorders in low birthweight infants.
AIM: To compare the prevalence of childhood and adolescent behavioural problems in low birthweight infants with matched controls. METHODS: A cohort study of a geographically defined population of survivors of +info)
Ictus expectoratus: a sign of complex partial seizures usually of non-dominant temporal lobe origin.
Spitting (or expectoration) is rarely seen with seizures. In Western society, spitting is a striking behavioral aberration. A 13-year-old child had intermittent agitated behavior, episodes of rage, spitting and confusion lasting up to 2 minutes. He stood up in church and told the preacher to 'shut up and sit down'. Epilepsy monitoring revealed spitting with polysharp and spike seizures resolved over the right temporal lobe. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a right temporal lobe ganglioglioma. Spitting seizures resolved after resection. Ictal expectoration is rare. It may occur with epigastric aura, nausea, chewing, swallowing and fumbling. Literature review disclosed 17 cases, 12 of which arose from the non-dominant hemisphere. Most regressed with surgery and anticonvulsants. (+info)
Inter-ictal and post-ictal psychoses in frontal lobe epilepsy: a retrospective comparison with psychoses in temporal lobe epilepsy.
There have been few studies of the psychopathology of patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). The majority of studies of both inter-ictal and post-ictal psychoses have strongly suggested the influence of temporal lobe disturbance on psychoses. Patients with organic brain damage or schizophrenia, however, sometimes show frontal lobe dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to better understand the effect, if any, of frontal lobe disturbance and seizure on psychopathology. Patients were divided into four groups based on epilepsy type and preceding seizures; 8 with FLE/inter-ictal psychosis, 3 with FLE/post-ictal psychosis, 29 with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE)/inter-ictal psychosis, and 8 with TLE/post-ictal psychosis. Psychopathologic symptoms were retrospectively reviewed based on case notes, using a modified brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS). Psychomotor excitement, hostility, suspiciousness, and hallucinatory behaviour were prominent features in all four groups. Six orthogonal factors were derived by factor analysis from the original data based on the 18 BPRS items. FLE patients with inter-ictal psychosis showed marked hebephrenic characteristics (i.e. emotional withdrawal and blunted effect). Our findings suggest that patients with FLE can exhibit various psychiatric symptoms. However, their psychotic symptoms, hebephrenic symptoms in particular, may often be overlooked. (+info)
Life-threatening brain failure and agitation in the intensive care unit.
The modern intensive care unit (ICU) has evolved into an area where mortality and morbidity can be reduced by identification of unexpected hemodynamic and ventilatory decompensations before long-term problems result. Because intensive care physicians are caring for an increasingly heterogeneous population of patients, the indications for aggressive monitoring and close titration of care have expanded. Agitated patients are proving difficult to deal with in nonmonitored environments because of the unpredictable consequences of the agitated state on organ systems. The severe agitation state that is associated with ethanol withdrawal and delirium tremens (DT) is examined as a model for evaluating the efficacy of the ICU environment to ensure consistent stabilization of potentially life-threatening agitation and delirium. (+info)
Adverse events, including death, associated with the use of 1,4-butanediol.
BACKGROUND: 1,4-Butanediol is an industrial solvent that, when ingested, is converted to gamma-hydroxybutyrate, a drug of abuse with depressant effects, primarily on the central nervous system. After reports of toxic effects of gamma-hydroxybutyrate and its resultant regulation by the federal government, 1,4-butanediol and gamma-butyrolactone, another precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate and an industrial solvent, began to be marketed as dietary supplements. We investigated reports of toxic effects due to the ingestion of 1,4-butanediol and reviewed the related health risks. METHODS: From June 1999 through December 1999, we identified cases of toxic effects of 1,4-butanediol involving patients who presented to our emergency departments with a clinical syndrome suggesting toxic effects of gamma-hydroxybutyrate and a history of ingesting 1,4-butanediol and patients discovered through public health officials and family members. We used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to measure 1,4-butanediol or its metabolite, gamma-hydroxybutyrate, in urine, serum, or blood. RESULTS: We identified nine episodes of toxic effects in eight patients who had ingested 1,4-butanediol recreationally, to enhance bodybuilding, or to treat depression or insomnia. One patient presented twice with toxic effects and had withdrawal symptoms after her second presentation. Clinical findings and adverse events included vomiting, urinary and fecal incontinence, agitation, combativeness, a labile level of consciousness, respiratory depression, and death. No additional intoxicants were identified in six patients, including the two who died. The doses of 1,4-butanediol ingested ranged from 5.4 to 20 g in the patients who died and ranged from 1 to 14 g in the nonfatal cases. CONCLUSIONS: The health risks of 1,4-butanediol are similar to those of its counterparts, gamma-hydroxybutyrate and gamma-butyrolactone. These include acute toxic effects, which may be fatal, and addiction and withdrawal. (+info)
Hyperactivity and impaired response habituation in hyperdopaminergic mice.
Abnormal dopaminergic transmission is implicated in schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and drug addiction. In an attempt to model aspects of these disorders, we have generated hyperdopaminergic mutant mice by reducing expression of the dopamine transporter (DAT) to 10% of wild-type levels (DAT knockdown). Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry and in vivo microdialysis revealed that released dopamine was cleared at a slow rate in knockdown mice, which resulted in a higher extracellular dopamine concentration. Unlike the DAT knockout mice, the DAT knockdown mice do not display a growth retardation phenotype. They have normal home cage activity but display hyperactivity and impaired response habituation in novel environments. In addition, we show that both the indirect dopamine receptor agonist amphetamine and the direct agonists apomorphine and quinpirole inhibit locomotor activity in the DAT knockdown mice, leading to the hypothesis that a shift in the balance between dopamine auto and heteroreceptor function may contribute to the therapeutic effect of psychostimulants in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. (+info)
Influence of the 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist SB242,084 on behaviour produced by the 5-HT(2) agonist Ro60-0175 and the indirect 5-HT agonist dexfenfluramine.
Ro60-0175 has been described as a selective agonist at the 5-HT(2C) receptor, yet it has only 10- fold higher affinity at the 5-HT(2C) compared to the 5-HT(2A) subtype, and equivalent affinity for the 5-HT(2B) receptor. The selective 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist SB242,084 (0.5 mg kg(-1) i.p.), blocked the hypoactivity and penile grooming induced by Ro60-0175 (1 mg kg(-1) s.c.). The combination of SB242,084 (0.5 mg kg(-1) i.p.) and Ro60-0175 (3 - 10 mg kg(-1)) produced a completely different pattern of behaviours including wet-dog shakes, hyperactivity and back muscle contractions. These latter effects were blocked by the selective 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist MDL100,907 (0.5 mg kg(-1) i.p.), but not the 5-HT(2B) receptor antagonist SB215,505 (3 mg kg(-1) p.o.). The indirect 5-HT releaser/reuptake inhibitor dexfenfluramine (1 - 10 mg kg(-1) i.p.) produced a mild increase in locomotor activity, penile grooming, and occasional back muscle contractions and wet-dog shakes. Pre-treatment with SB242,084 (0.5 mg kg(-1)), blocked the incidence of penile grooming, and markedly potentiated both the dexfenfluramine-induced hyperactivity, the incidence of back muscle contractions, and to a lesser extent wet-dog shakes. Some toxicity was also evident in animals treated with dexfenfluramine (10 mg kg(-1))/SB242,084 (0.5 mg kg(-1)), but not in any other treatment groups. The hyperactivity and toxicity produced by the dexfenfluramine (10 mg kg(-1))/SB242,084 (0.5 mg kg(-1)) combination was replicated in a further study, and hyperthermia was also recorded. Both hyperthermia and toxicity were blocked by MDL100,907 (0.5 mg kg(-1)) but not SB215,505 (3 mg kg(-1)). An attenuation of the hyperlocomotor response was also observed following MDL100,907. These findings suggest that 5-HT(2C) receptor activation can inhibit the expression of behaviours mediated through other 5-HT receptor subtypes. (+info)
Functional dopaminergic hyperactivity is a key feature of schizophrenia. Recent in vivo imaging studies have demonstrated greater striatal dopamine release in response to amphetamine challenge in schizophrenia subjects than in normal controls. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are known to play a prominent role in regulation of striatal dopamine release. In humans, NMDA antagonists induce a psychotic state that closely resembles schizophrenia. The present study investigates the degree to which chronic continuous administration of the NMDA antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) induces schizophrenia-like hyperreactivity of striatal dopamine release to amphetamine in rodents. Rats were treated with 10 or 15 mg/kg/d PCP for two weeks by osmotic minipump, and striatal dopamine release to amphetamine challenge (1 mg/kg) was monitored by microdialysis. PCP-treated rats showed significant enhancement in amphetamine-induced dopamine release, along with significantly enhanced locomotor activity. These findings support the concept that NMDA receptor dysfunction may contribute to dopaminergic dysfunction in schizophrenia. (+info)