(1/10) A preliminary evaluation of two behavioral skills training procedures for teaching abduction-prevention skills to schoolchildren.
Although child abduction is a low-rate event, it presents a serious threat to the safety of children. The victims of child abduction face the threat of physical and emotional injury, sexual abuse, and death. Previous research has shown that behavioral skills training (BST) is effective in teaching children abduction-prevention skills, although not all children learn the skills. This study compared BST only to BST with an added in situ training component to teach abduction-prevention skills in a small-group format to schoolchildren. Results showed that both programs were effective in teaching abduction-prevention skills. In addition, the scores for the group that received in situ training were significantly higher than scores for the group that received BST alone at the 3-month follow-up assessment. (+info)
(2/10) Psychodramatic psychotherapy combined with pharmacotherapy in major depressive disorder: an open and naturalistic study.
OBJECTIVE: Recent literature has highlighted the role of psychotherapy in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Combined therapies comprising both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy have presented the best results. Although several kinds of psychotherapies have been studied in the treatment of depressive disorders, there remains a lack of data on psychodramatic psychotherapy in the treatment of major depressive disorder. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of psychodramatic psychotherapy (in a sample of major depressive disorder patients. METHOD: This is an open, naturalistic, controlled, non-randomized study. Twenty major depressive disorder patients (according to the DSM-IV criteria), under pharmacological treatment for depression, with Hamilton Depression Scale total scores between 7 and 20 (mild to moderate depression), were divided into two groups. Patients in the psychotherapeutic group took part in 4 individual and 24 structured psychodramatic group sessions, whilst subjects in the control group did not participate in this psychodramatic psychotherapy. Both groups were evaluated with the Social Adjustment Scale-Self Report and the Hamilton Depression Scale. RESULTS: Psychotherapeutic group patients showed a significant improvement according to the Social Adjustment Scale-Self Report and the Hamilton Depression Scale scores at endpoint, compared to those of the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that individual and group psychodramatic psychotherapy, associated to pharmacological treatment, provides good clinical benefits in the treatment of major depressive disorder. (+info)
(3/10) Use of optical aids by visually impaired students: social and cultural factors.
PURPOSE: To identify conceptions, social and cultural factors regarding the use of optical aids by visually impaired students and to present information to health and educational professionals. METHODS: Qualitative research using spontaneous theater (interactive theater modality based on improvisation) as research instrument. To analyze data, an adapted form of the collective subject discourse technique - procedures for organization of verbal data - was applied. Scenes, gestures, expressions, silences and behaviors were added to the original proposal. The study population included all visually impaired students from elementary public schools, aged 10 to 14 years who attended a resource room in a Sao Paulo state city. The students were examined at a university low vision service. RESULTS: Little knowledge about the impairment and difficult adaptation to use of optical aids were identified. The students' behavior showed denial of own problems, discomfort on public use of aids and lack of participation in own health decisions. CONCLUSION: Analysis through spontaneous theater session allows the professional to gather information which is not possible to acquire in the health assistance atmosphere. Needs, difficulties and barriers the users found before the prescribed treatment were identified. (+info)
(4/10) Treating women drug abusers: action therapy and trauma assessment.
The authors suggest that action therapy, a group of techniques including psychodrama, drama therapy, and role training, warrants research attention to determine whether it is well suited to the special characteristics and needs of women clients. In addition, the authors call on researchers to develop a new standardized tool for counselors to use during initial interviews to determine whether women presenting for drug abuse treatment also have significant issues related to trauma. The authors believe the use of unassisted clinical judgment for trauma assessment in first interviews may drive patients away by probing for painful information that clients are not yet ready to confront or divulge. (+info)
(5/10) Resistances in the first session of psychodrama psychotherapy group with adults.
Resistance refers to all types of behaviour that oppose the exploration processes in the therapeutic process and inhibit work. Very common types of resistances, such as forgetting the time of session, being late, non-payment of sessions and such are found in every type of psychotherapy, including psychodrama psychotherapy. The attempt to break resistance in order to evoke changes could be dangerous as it represents the necessary defence mechanism and it is also a vital element of the person's functioning in therapy. In psychodrama, which is a type of action method of group psychotherapy, resistance can manifest through continuous verbalization of problems, in not wanting to act out the problem, the protagonist's typical non-verbal message or the most obvious manifestation: the absence of the protagonist. This paper will be on the typical resistance which the therapist has noticed during the first session of psychodrama psychotherapy, with a small group of adult clients. As the group was young and with undeveloped cohesiveness, resistance represented a certain balancing power for maintaining mental homeostasis of the group. (+info)
(6/10) Evaluation of the efficacy of simulation games in traffic safety education of kindergarten children.
Using a simulation game designed to teach children to obey certain traffic safety rules, an experimental study was conducted with 136 five-year-old children in four Quebec schools. Within each classroom, subjects were randomly divided into four groups: three intervention groups and one control group. Each of the experimental groups was subjected to a different intervention with outcome measured using three instruments related to attitudes, behavior, and transfer of learning of pedestrian traffic safety. Results suggest that simulation games including role-playing/group dynamics and modeling/training can change attitudes and modify behavior in the area of pedestrian traffic safety in children of this age. (+info)
(7/10) Psychiatric nurse as therapist.
Under supervision five nurse-therapists have treated phobic patients as successfully as have psychiatrists and psychologists using similar psychological treatments in comparable psychiatric populations. Nurses have also had good results in other neurotic disorders. Intensive training is required. Nurse-therapists find their work rewarding, but the present Salmon gradings make no provision for their advancement should they retain their clinical function. Results suggest that the use of selected psychiatric nurses as skilled therapists can ease the current critical shortage of treatment personnel in psychiatry. (+info)
(8/10) Teaching home safety and survival skills to latch-key children: a comparison of two manuals and methods.
I evaluated the influence of two training manuals on latch-key children's acquisition of home safety and survival skills. The widely used, discussion-oriented "Prepared for Today" manual was compared with a behaviorally oriented "Safe at Home" manual. Data were scored by response criteria developed by experts and by parents' and experts' ratings of children's spontaneous answers. With both methods of scoring, three behaviorally trained children demonstrated clear and abrupt increases in skill following training in each of seven trained modules, and these increases largely persisted in real world generalization probes and at 5-month follow-up. Smaller and less stable increases in skill were found in the three discussion-trained children across the seven modules; lower skill levels were also seen in real world generalization probes and at follow-up. Neither group of children demonstrated skill increases in home safety areas that were not explicitly trained. Both training methods produced small decreases in children's self-report of general anxiety and anxiety concerning home safety. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for cost-effective training of latch-key children. (+info)