(1/180) Role of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in a murine model of Chlamydia psittaci-induced abortion.
To assess the role of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in Chlamydia psittaci infection in a pregnant mouse model, pregnant and nonpregnant Swiss OF1 mice were depleted of PMNs by treatment with the RB6-8C5 monoclonal antibody before intraperitoneal infection with C. psittaci serotype 1. Nondepleted mice served as infection controls. Depleted mice aborted earlier and had a much higher mortality rate than nondepleted mice. Bacteriological analysis showed that the number of chlamydiae isolated from the spleens of depleted mice at 5 and 7 days postinfection was 100 times greater than that isolated from nondepleted mice. Histopathological analysis of the placentas of depleted mice showed widespread necrosis of the uteroplacental units, with weak immunoreaction to chlamydial antigen, while the placentas of nondepleted mice showed substantial neutrophil infiltration but no large areas of necrosis, with moderate to strong immunoreaction to chlamydial antigen. The livers of depleted mice showed numerous chlamydial inclusions in the hepatocytes, delayed microgranuloma formation, and in the pregnant animals extensive coagulative periportal necrosis. The livers of nondepleted mice displayed multiple small foci of PMNs and mononuclear cells with microgranuloma formation. Among this group of mice, the pregnant animals always had more hepatic damage than nonpregnant animals. Our results suggest that PMNs play an essential role in the response to C. psittaci primary infection, preventing the uncontrolled multiplication of chlamydiae in the liver and spleen. (+info)
(2/180) Cytokine release by ovine macrophages following infection with Chlamydia psittaci.
Chlamydia psittaci is an obligate intracellular pathogen that causes abortion in both sheep and humans. The disease in sheep (but not humans) is characterized by a long-term persistent phase that appears to be under the control of interferon-gamma. However, nothing is known about cytokine induction that precedes the persistent phase in sheep. Primary alveolar lavage cells recovered from normal adult sheep were used to study cytokine production in the first 72 h of infection with C. psittaci. These cells were phenotypically characteristic of macrophages, being adherent, phagocytic, CD14+ and staining positive for non-specific esterase. In vitro infection of the macrophages with C. psittaci resulted in the release of IL-1beta, IL-8 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as measured by ovine-specific ELISAs. Heat-treated chlamydiae (1 h at 65 degrees C) did not induce the release of IL-1beta, but the release of IL-8 was similar to that induced by untreated organisms. The cells from different sheep varied most notably in their patterns of GM-CSF release in response to heat-treated and untreated organisms. (+info)
(3/180) Turkeys are protected from infection with Chlamydia psittaci by plasmid DNA vaccination against the major outer membrane protein.
Plasmid DNA expressing the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of an avian Chlamydia psittaci serovar A strain has been tested for its ability to raise an immune response and induce protection against challenge with the same serovar. A combined parenteral (intramuscular injection) and mucosal route (DNA drops administered to the nares) of DNA inoculation was compared with gene gun-based immunization. The gene gun delivery of pcDNA1/MOMP as well as the intramuscular-intranasal DNA delivery primed both T-helper and B cell memory, although rMOMP-expressing cells did not induce high antibody responses. Evidence for the priming of the memory was provided by the fact that the pcDNA1/MOMP inoculations raised antibodies belonging to the IgG and not IgM isotype. However, in response to challenge only five out of 15 vaccinated turkeys showed four-fold increases in serum IgG after challenge. By contrast, evidence for the priming of T cell memory in response to challenge was found in all vaccinated turkeys, as shown by the significantly heightened proliferative responses of peripheral blood lymphocytes following vaccination. Both immunization methods produced similar serological and lymphocyte proliferative responses. Notwithstanding the immunization method, a significant level of protection was observed in all pcDNA1/MOMP-immunized turkeys. The efficacy of MOMP-based DNA vaccination as a means of preventing severe clinical signs, lesions and chlamydia excretion in a turkey model of C. psittaci infection was demonstrated. (+info)
(4/180) Polymorphonuclear neutrophils are necessary for the recruitment of CD8(+) T cells in the liver in a pregnant mouse model of Chlamydophila abortus (Chlamydia psittaci serotype 1) infection.
The role of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in the development of the specific immune response against Chlamydophila abortus (Chlamydia psittaci serotype 1) infection was studied in a pregnant mouse model involving treatment with RB6-8C5 monoclonal antibody. PMN depletion significantly affected the immune response in the liver, in which the T-lymphocyte and F4/80(+) cell populations decreased, particularly the CD8(+) T-cell population. A Th1-like response, characterized by high levels of gamma interferon without detectable levels of interleukin 4 (IL-4) in serum, was observed in both depleted and nondepleted mice, although an increased production of IL-10 was detected in the depleted group. Our results suggest that PMNs play a very important role in the recruitment of other leukocyte populations to the inflammatory foci but have little influence in the polarization of the immune specific response toward a Th1-like response. (+info)
(5/180) Touchdown enzyme time release-PCR for detection and identification of Chlamydia trachomatis, C. pneumoniae, and C. psittaci using the 16S and 16S-23S spacer rRNA genes.
Three touchdown enzyme time release (TETR)-PCR assays were used to amplify different DNA sequences in the variable regions of the 16S and 16S-23S spacer rRNA genes specific for Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Chlamydia psittaci as improved tests for sensitive diagnosis and rapid species differentiation. The TETR-PCR protocol used 60 cycles of amplification, which provided improved analytical sensitivity (0.004 to 0.063 inclusion-forming unit of Chlamydia species per PCR). The sensitivity of TETR-PCR with primer set CTR 70-CTR 71 was 96.7%, and the specificity was 99.6%, compared to those of the AMPLICOR PCR for the detection of C. trachomatis in vaginal swab samples. TETR-PCR for C. pneumoniae with primer set CPN 90-CPN 91 was 90% sensitive and 93.3% specific compared with a nested PCR with primer set CP1/2-CPC/D for clinical respiratory samples. TETR-PCR for C. psittaci with primer set CPS 100-CPS 101 showed substantial agreement with cell culturing (kappa, 0.78) for animal tissue samples. Primer sets were then combined into a single multiplex TETR-PCR test. The respective 315-, 195-, and 111-bp DNA target products were precisely amplified when DNA from each of the respective Chlamydia species or combinations of them was used. Multiplex chlamydia TETR-PCR correctly identified one strain of each of the 15 serovars of C. trachomatis, 22 isolates of C. pneumoniae, and 20 isolates of C. psittaci. The primer sets were specific for each species. No target products were amplified when DNA from C. pecorum or a variety of other microorganisms was tested for specificity. TETR-PCR with primers selected for specific sequences in the 16S and 16S-23S spacer rRNA genes is a valuable test that could be used either with individual primers or in a multiplex assay for the identification and differentiation of Chlamydia species from culture isolates or for the detection of chlamydiae in clinical samples. (+info)
(6/180) Molecular characterization of a bacteriophage (Chp2) from Chlamydia psittaci.
Comparisons of the proteome of abortifacient Chlamydia psittaci isolates from sheep by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis identified a novel abundant protein with a molecular mass of 61.4 kDa and an isoelectric point of 6.41. C-terminal sequence analysis of this protein yielded a short peptide sequence that had an identical match to the viral coat protein (VP1) of the avian chlamydiaphage Chp1. Electron microscope studies revealed the presence of a 25-nm-diameter bacteriophage (Chp2) with no apparent spike structures. Thin sections of chlamydia-infected cells showed that Chp2 particles were located to membranous structures surrounding reticulate bodies (RBs), suggesting that Chp2 is cytopathic for ovine C. psittaci RBs. Chp2 double-stranded circular replicative-form DNA was purified and used as a template for DNA sequence analysis. The Chp2 genome is 4,567 bp and encodes up to eight open reading frames (ORFs); it is similar in overall organization to the Chp1 genome. Seven of the ORFs (1 to 5, 7, and 8) have sequence homologies with Chp1. However, ORF 6 has a different spatial location and no cognate partner within the Chp1 genome. Chlamydiaphages have three viral structural proteins, VP1, VP2, and VP3, encoded by ORFs 1 to 3, respectively. Amino acid residues in the phiX174 procapsid known to mediate interactions between the viral coat protein and internal scaffolding proteins are conserved in the Chp2 VP1 and VP3 proteins. We suggest that VP3 performs a scaffolding-like function but has evolved into a structural protein. (+info)
(7/180) Compendium of measures to control Chlamydia psittaci infection among humans (psittacosis) and pet birds (avian chlamydiosis), 2000. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Psittacosis--also known as parrot fever and ornithosis--is spread by a bacterial infection of birds that can cause severe pneumonia and other serious health problems among humans. From 1988 through 1998, 813 cases of psittacosis (infection with Chlamydia psittaci) were reported to CDC, and most resulted from exposure to infected pet birds, usually cockatiels, parakeets, parrots, and macaws. In birds, C. psittaci infection is referred to as avian chlamydiosis (AC). Infected birds shed the bacteria through feces and nasal discharges, and humans become infected from exposure to these materials. This compendium provides information about psittacosis and AC to public health officials, physicians, veterinarians, the pet bird industry, and others concerned about controlling these diseases and protecting public health. The recommendations in this compendium provide standardized procedures for controlling AC in birds, a vital step to protecting human health. (+info)
(8/180) Fluorescent antibody studies in chlamydial infections.
Irradiated McCoy cells infected with genital strains of Chlamydia trachomatis were grown in wells on slides coated with polytetrafluoroethylene. The inclusions produced in this system formed the antigen in an indirect immunofluorescence test, which detected group-specific chlamydial antibodies in sera from patients attending veneral disease clinics. Chlamydial antibodies were found more frequently and in higher titer in sera from women attending veneral disease clinics then in sera from a less promiscuous population attending a Family Planning Association clinic. Paired sera from 13 patients with nongonococcal urethritis from whom chylamydiae had been isolated were tested against the homologous isolates; seroconversion was demonstrated in only one instance, and antibody was present in the first serum specimens of all the other patients. Chlamydia-specific immunoglobulin M was found in four of eight patients with psittacosis and in a proportion of sera from patients attending veneral disease and Family Planning Association clinics. The antigen for this immunofluorescence test can easily be prepared in laboratories with cell culture facilities for the isolation of C. trachomatis, and the test should be useful for laboratories which cannot undertake the micro-immunofluorescence test. (+info)