(1/75) Molecular genetic evidence supporting the clonality and appendiceal origin of Pseudomyxoma peritonei in women.
Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a poorly understood condition characterized by mucinous ascites and multifocal peritoneal mucinous tumors. Women with PMP often have mucinous tumors involving both the appendix and the ovaries. Several previous histopathological and immunohistochemical studies of PMP have suggested that most, if not all, cases of PMP in women are derived from mucinous adenomas of the appendix rather than from primary ovarian tumors. A few studies of the molecular genetics of PMP have been recently reported. However, these studies analyzed only a small number of cases and some included a heterogeneous group of mucinous tumors, including both benign and malignant appendiceal and ovarian tumors. We analyzed K-ras mutations and allelic losses of chromosomes 18q, 17p, 5q, and 6q in a substantial number of morphologically uniform cases of PMP with synchronous ovarian and appendiceal tumors as well as in appendiceal mucinous adenomas (MAs) and ovarian mucinous tumors of low malignant potential (MLMPs) unassociated with PMP. Each of the 16 PMP cases (100%) analyzed demonstrated identical K-ras mutations in the appendiceal adenoma and corresponding synchronous ovarian tumor. K-ras mutations were identified in 11 of 16 (69%) appendiceal MAs unassociated with PMP and in 12 of 16 (75%) ovarian MLMPs unassociated with PMP. Two PMP cases showed identical allelic losses in the matched ovarian and appendiceal tumors. A discordant pattern of allelic loss between the ovarian and appendiceal tumors at one or two of the loci tested was observed in six PMP cases. In all but one instance, LOH was observed in the ovarian tumor, whereas both alleles were retained in the matched appendiceal lesion, suggesting tumor progression in a secondary (metastatic) site. Our findings strongly support the conclusion that mucinous tumors involving the appendix and ovaries in women with PMP are clonal and derived from a single site, most likely the appendix. (+info)
(2/75) Pseudomyxoma peritoneii.
A middle aged male patient presented with gradual distension of the abdomen. Imaging modalities showed classical features of pseudomyxoma peritoneii which was confirmed by aspiration cytology. Details of the case are described and relevant literature is reviewed. (+info)
(3/75) The coexistence of low-grade mucinous neoplasms of the appendix and appendiceal diverticula: a possible role in the pathogenesis of pseudomyxoma peritonei.
We examined 38 appendectomies with diagnoses of mucocele, diverticulum, or adenoma to study the coincidence of appendiceal diverticula and appendiceal low-grade mucinous neoplasms and to examine the possible role of diverticula in the pathogenesis of pseudomyxoma peritonei. Invasive adenocarcinomas and retention cysts were excluded (six cases). Cases were classified as adenomas or mucinous tumors of unknown malignant potential, with or without diverticula. Medical records were reviewed for multiple parameters, including presenting symptoms, presence of pseudomyxoma peritonei, and presence of associated malignancies. Binomial statistics were used to calculate the probability that the observed prevalence of low-grade mucinous neoplasms and diverticula together was significantly different from the expected prevalence of diverticula or low-grade mucinous neoplasms alone, using historical controls from the literature. Twenty-five percent of the total cases (8 of 32) contained both a low-grade mucinous neoplasm (7 cystadenomas and 1 mucinous tumor of unknown malignant potential) and a diverticulum. Thus, 8 of 19 low-grade mucinous neoplasms (42%) were associated with diverticula. Of the appendices with both low-grade mucinous neoplasms and diverticula, three contained dissecting acellular mucin within the appendiceal wall, four showed diverticular perforation, and one had pseudomyxoma peritonei associated with the ruptured diverticulum. A significant percentage (P < .001) of cases contained low-grade mucinous neoplasms and diverticula together. The case of coexistent low-grade mucinous neoplasm, diverticulum, and pseudomyxoma peritonei suggests that diverticula could play a role in the pathogenesis of pseudomyxoma peritonei. This could occur either by involvement of preexisting diverticula by the neoplasm or by distention of the appendiceal lumen by mucin, leading to increased intraluminal pressure and subsequent diverticulum formation at a weak area in the wall. Either mechanism might allow low-grade mucinous neoplasms to penetrate the appendiceal wall more easily. (+info)
(4/75) Mucocele of the appendix secondary to endometriosis. Report of two cases, one with localized pseudomyxoma peritonei.
This report documents 2 cases of obstructive mucocele of the appendix secondary to endometriosis of the appendix. In 1 case, the tip of the mucocele was ruptured and associated with localized pseudomyxoma peritonei. Mucoceles of the appendix usually are associated with hyperplastic or neoplastic mucosal proliferation; obstruction, particularly that due to endometriosis, is an infrequent cause. Occurrence of localized pseudomyxoma peritonei associated with appendiceal endometriosis and mucocele has not been reported previously. (+info)
(5/75) Recent advances in immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of ovarian neoplasms.
This leader reviews recent advances in immunohistochemistry that are useful in the diagnosis of ovarian neoplasms. These include the value of different anticytokeratin antibodies in the distinction between a primary ovarian adenocarcinoma and a metastatic adenocarcinoma, especially of colorectal origin. These antibodies have also helped to clarify the origin of the peritoneal disease in most cases of pseudomyxoma peritonei. The value of antibodies against so called tumour specific antigens, such as CA125 and HAM56, in determining the ovarian origin of an adenocarcinoma is also reviewed. In recent years, several studies have investigated the value of a variety of monoclonal antibodies in the diagnosis of ovarian sex cord stromal tumours and in the distinction between these neoplasms and their histological mimics. These antibodies include those directed against inhibin, CD99, Mullerian inhibiting substance, relaxin like factor, melan A, and calretinin. Of these, anti-alpha inhibin appears to be of most diagnostic value. It is stressed that these antibodies should always be used as part of a larger panel and not in isolation. (+info)
(6/75) Histopathologic analysis in 46 patients with pseudomyxoma peritonei syndrome: failure versus success with a second-look operation.
Pseudomyxoma peritonei syndrome is a disease characterized by mucinous ascites and mucinous tumor disseminated on peritoneal surfaces; the disease almost always originates from a perforated appendiceal epithelial tumor. Histopathologic assessment of aggressive versus noninvasive character of the mucinous tumor has been shown to have an impact on survival in patients treated with cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Out of a database of 312 patients having a complete cytoreduction for pseudomyxoma peritonei syndrome, 46 patients (24 male and 22 female) had at least one second-look surgery. Before this review, all 46 of these patients were clinically uniformly categorized with a diagnosis of pseudomyxoma peritonei. Using the criteria described by Ronnett and colleagues, all specimens from the multiple surgical procedures performed on these patients were reviewed and reclassified as disseminated peritoneal adenomucinosis (adenomucinosis), adenomucinosis/mucinous adenocarcinoma (hybrid), or mucinous adenocarcinoma. The review was performed in a blinded fashion by a single pathologist (HY). To facilitate a critical evaluation of these histopathologic assessments, the patients were separated into two groups: (1) 19 patients who had a second-look surgery that was unsuccessful in that they went on to die of their disease or in that they currently have disease progression and a limited survival and (2) 27 patients who had a successful second look and currently continue disease free with a minimum 3-year follow-up period. As a result of this review, 11 of 19 patients with an unsuccessful second look and originally designated pseudomyxoma peritonei were reclassified as hybrid-type malignancy (four patients) or mucinous adenocarcinoma (seven patients). Only two patients were reclassified in the successful second-look group (P =.0005). Transitions from a less aggressive to a more invasive histology from one cytoreduction to the next occurred on 13 occasions in patients whose second-look surgery failed and in one patient with a successful second-look surgery (P <.0001). Seven patients retained a histologic classification of disseminated peritoneal adenomucinosis but went on to die of an aggressive disease process. Clinical assessments suggested that failure of second-look surgery for pseudomyxoma peritonei was associated with a biologically more aggressive disease. Unsuccessful second-look surgery for patients with a clinical diagnosis of pseudomyxoma peritonei tumor was often related to an inaccurate initial histologic classification of appendiceal mucinous tumor. Also, a transition from less to more aggressive histology was frequently seen in patients dying of this disease. Assessment of tumor histology can predict the outcome if a uniform surgical treatment is used in patients with peritoneal dissemination of mucinous epithelial tumors of the appendix. (+info)
(7/75) Gelatinous ascites: a cytohistologic study of pseudomyxoma peritonei in 67 patients.
BACKGROUND: Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a rare condition characterized by gelatinous ascites. Although the histologic attributes of PMP have been well studied, the cytologic features remain ill defined. METHODS: We reviewed the peritoneal washings (PW) in 67 patients with PMP to identify cytomorphologic features useful in classifying cases as either disseminated peritoneal adenomucinosis (DPAM) or peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis (PMCA). Histologic specimens were correlated with the cytologic diagnoses. Correlation between cytologic diagnosis and patient outcome was investigated. RESULTS: Neoplastic epithelial cells were identified in 63 of 67 PW (94%). Concordance with the histologic diagnosis was obtained in 61 of 63 cases. Of these 36.5% were cytologically classified as DPAM with primary appendiceal neoplasms in 19 cases. Thirty-four of 63 cases (53.9%) were cytologically diagnosed as PMCA based on PW cytology. Most were of appendiceal or colonic origin. Four cases displayed cytologic features of both DPAM and PMCA. Two discordant cases each with a cytologic diagnosis of PMCA had an appendiceal adenoma. Acellular mucin alone was identified in the PW in four cases. Analysis of follow-up data revealed that cases diagnosed as DPAM had a better prognosis than those diagnosed as PMCA. CONCLUSIONS: Cytomorphologic features of epithelial cells in PW material can accurately categorize cases of PMP as either DPAM or PMCA. Furthermore, this categorization appears to have important prognostic implications. (+info)
(8/75) Pseudomyxoma peritonei of hernial sac--a case report.
A rare presentation of Pseudomyxoma Peritonei of hernial sac is described. The patient was admitted for repair of an inguinal hernia. During herniorraphy large amount of mucinous material was found in hernial sac. Microscopy revealed epithelial glandular cells with bland appearance within mucinous pools. A search for primary remained fruitless. (+info)