(1/88) Detection of clonal B cells in microdissected reactive lymphoproliferations: possible diagnostic pitfalls in PCR analysis of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement.
AIMS: To evaluate the specificity of standard and fluorescence based (Genescan) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene rearrangement analysis in complete and microdissected paraffin wax embedded sections from lymphoid proliferations. METHODS: PCR IgH gene rearrangement analysis of whole sections and microdissected fragments (n = 62) from paraffin wax embedded reactive lymph nodes (n = 6) and tonsils (n = 3). Amplificant analysis used both standard methods and automated high resolution fluorescence based quantification and size determination using GENESCAN software. RESULTS: Whole tissue sections were consistently polyclonal in control experiments. IgH gene amplification was successful in 59 of 62 microdissected fragments; only two of 59 showed a polyclonal rearrangement pattern, the remainder being oligoclonal or monoclonal. Reanalysis was possible in 33 samples; six showed reproducible bands on gel analysis and satisfied accepted criteria for monoclonality. Use of high resolution gels with Genescan analysis improved sensitivity and band definition; however, three samples still appeared to be monoclonal. CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm that PCR based IgH gene rearrangement analysis is a sensitive and specific method for demonstrating B cell clonality in whole paraffin wax embedded sections. However, oligoclonal and monoclonal rearrangement patterns are regularly encountered in small tissue fragments from otherwise unremarkable reactive lymphoproliferations, possibly because of preferential priming or detection of local B cell clones. Data from clonal analysis of small, microdissected or lymphocyte poor samples must be evaluated critically. It is recommended that analyses should be run in parallel on at least two tissue specimens. Only reproducible bands present in more than one sample should be considered to be suggestive of neoplasia. (+info)
(2/88) Lymphocytic hypophysitis and infundibuloneurohypophysitis; clinical and pathological evaluations.
This report describes the clinical and pathological characteristics of two patients with lymphocytic hypophysitis (LHy) and two with infundibuloneurohypophysitis (INHy). Two of the patients were women and two were men, and their ages were between 27 and 38 years old. This disease was not associated with either pregnancy or the postpartum period in the female patients. Two of the patients presented with diabetes insipidus, one with panhypopituitarism and right abducens paralysis and one with headache and galactorrhea. At presentation three of the patients had mild to moderate hyperprolactinemia and one had low prolactin levels. All four had abnormal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): focal nodular enlarging of the infundibulum and normal hypophysis in one, expanding sellar masses in two, and diffusely thickened stalk with slightly enlarged pituitary gland in one. Three cases showed no sign of adenohypophysial deficiency with stimulation tests. One patient had associated chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. Of the first three patients, one patient underwent transcranial and two underwent transnasal transsphenoidal (TNTS) surgery for mass excisions since they were thought to have pituitary tumors. Endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal biopsy was performed in the last one with a suspicion of LHy. The pathological and immunohistochemical examinations revealed lymphocytic infiltration. Hyperprolactinemia resolved with surgery in two patients and one developed diabetes insipidus as a complication. We conclude that LHy and infundibuloneurohypophysitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the mass lesions of the sellar region and also should be kept in the mind for the etiopathogenesis of cases of hyperprolactinemia, galactorrhea and diabetes insipidus. In suspected cases endoscopic endonasal biopsy for the histopathological diagnosis can be a safe approach. (+info)
(3/88) Fine-needle aspiration cytology of lymphoproliferative lesions involving the major salivary glands.
Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNA) is an accurate and cost-effective procedure for evaluating salivary gland lesions. Lymphoproliferative lesions may manifest as salivary gland enlargement. We report our experience with 43 cases of reactive and neoplastic lymphoproliferative lesions of the salivary glands evaluated by FNA, including 23 cases of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia and 20 neoplastic lymphoproliferative processes. The latter included 2 multiple myelomas and 18 non-Hodgkin lymphomas (small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia, 1; small cleaved cell lymphoma, 1; lympho-plasmacytoid lymphoma, 1; mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, 2; mixed cell lymphoma, 4; lymphoblastic lymphoma, 1; and large cell lymphoma, 8). There were no false-negative diagnoses. Aspiration smears from 3 patients with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia and 4 patients with malignant lymphoma initially were interpreted as atypical lymphoid proliferations or as suggestive of malignant lymphoma. Thus, FNA had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 87%. The majority of patients were treated medically without surgical intervention. Among the patients who underwent surgical resection of the salivary gland, 7 had an equivocal cytologic diagnosis and 2 had a benign cytologic diagnosis, but their parotid swelling failed to regress despite medical treatment. In most instances, FNA provides useful information for subsequent disease management and obviates surgical intervention. (+info)
(4/88) Regulation of TCL1 expression in B- and T-cell lymphomas and reactive lymphoid tissues.
Chromosomal rearrangements observed in T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia involve the translocation of one T-cell receptor gene to either chromosome 14q32 or Xq28, deregulating the expression of cellular protooncogenes of unknown function, such as TCL1 or its homologue, MTCP1. In the human hematopoietic system, TCL1 expression is predominantly observed in developing B lymphocytes, whereas its overexpression in T cells causes mature T-cell proliferation in transgenic mice. In this study, using a newly generated monoclonal antibody against recombinant TCL1 protein, we extended our analysis mainly by immunohistochemistry and also by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and Western blot to a large tumor lymphoma data bank including 194 cases of lymphoproliferative disorders of B- and T-cell origin as well as reactive lymphoid tissues. The results obtained show that in reactive lymphoid tissues, TCL1 is strongly expressed by a subset of mantle zone B lymphocytes and is expressed to a lesser extent by follicle center cells and by scattered interfollicular small lymphocytes. In B-cell neoplasia, TCL1 was expressed in the majority of the cases, including lymphoblastic lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, mantle cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (60%), and primary cutaneous B cell lymphoma (55%). TCL1 expression was observed in both the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments, as confirmed by Western blot analysis. Conversely, TCL1 was not expressed in Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells, multiple myelomas, marginal zone B-cell lymphomas, CD30+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma, lymphoblastic T-cell lymphoma, peripheral T-cell lymphoma, and mycosis fungoides. These data indicate that TCL1 is expressed in more differentiated B cells, under both reactive and neoplastic conditions, from antigen committed B cells and in germinal center B cells and is down-regulated in the latest stage of B-cell differentiation. (+info)
(5/88) Organizing pneumonia related to common variable immunodeficiency. case report and literature review.
A 68-year-old woman suffering from common variable immunodeficiency (CVI) developed a typical picture of organizing pneumonia. Causative factors other than CVI were eliminated. Several antibiotic regimens failed to improve the patient's condition, while the clinical manifestations rapidly disappeared under steroid therapy, with complete radiological recovery, but relapsed after steroid withdrawal. Finally, organizing pneumonia was definitely demonstrated by pathological findings obtained by open lung biopsy. Interestingly, pathological examination exhibited two other well-known CVI-associated lesions, i.e. benign lymphoid hyperplasia and noncaseating granuloma. In view of reports in the literature, we speculate that these different histological patterns could have resulted in a spectrum of symptomatic CVI-associated pulmonary disorders that improved under steroid therapy. (+info)
(6/88) Follicular lymphoma can be distinguished from benign follicular hyperplasia by flow cytometry using simultaneous staining of cytoplasmic bcl-2 and cell surface CD20.
The distinction between benign follicular hyperplasia (FH) and follicular lymphoma (FL) is sometimes problematic. We wanted to determine whether the expression of bcl-2 of FH was quantitatively different from that of FL, using surface CD20 expression as a discriminator of the various lymphoid compartments. Lymph node cell suspensions from 12 cases of FH and 17 cases of FL were analyzed by flow cytometry using a combined surface CD20 and intracellular bcl-2 staining. CD20- T cells in FH demonstrated the same bcl-2 expression as the CD20+ mantle cells, but the bright CD20+ germinal center cells showed near absence of bcl-2 expression. In contrast, the neoplastic cells of FL showed greater bcl-2 expression than the T cells of the same tumors and all cell populations of FH. This difference was particularly significant between the neoplastic B cells of FL and the germinal center cells of FH. The combined analysis of CD20 and bcl-2 should be useful for the differential diagnosis between FH and FL and particularly applicable to limited samples or when B-cell clonality is in question. Whether the quantitation of bcl-2 expression can be of further discriminatory value in malignant lymphomas remains to be determined. (+info)
(7/88) Silicone lymphadenopathy mimicking a lymphoma in a patient with a metatarsophalangeal joint prosthesis.
With lymph node enlargement, the possibility of a malignant process such as metastatic carcinoma or lymphoma needs to be excluded. This report describes a 47 year old woman with inguinal lymph node enlargement initially suspicious for lymphoma. Fine needle aspiration findings favoured reactive hyperplasia, but a malignant process could not be excluded. The final histological diagnosis was a foreign body granulomatous inflammatory response as a result of regionally disseminated silicone particles from an over looked metatarsophalangeal joint prosthesis. Because of the large number of joint prostheses world wide, it should be kept in mind that migration of wear particles can create granulomatous inflammation and node enlargement. (+info)
(8/88) Cefuroxime induced lymphomatoid hypersensitivity reaction.
An 84 year old woman developed erythematous blotchy erythema and purpuric rashes over the lower limbs three days after being started on intravenous cefuroxime for acute diverticulitis. A skin biopsy specimen showed a mixed infiltrate of lymphoid cells and eosinophils; many of the lymphocytes were large, pleomorphic, and showed a raised mitotic rate. Immunohistochemistry showed the infiltrate to be T cell rich, with all the large cells being CD30 positive. Typical mycosis fungoides cells, marked epidermotropism, and Pautrier's abscesses were not seen. The rash disappeared 10 days after cessation of cefuroxime and the patient remained asymptomatic 15 months later. This apparent cutaneous T cell lymphoma-like reaction is best described as lymphomatoid vascular reaction. The drug induced immune response with an atypical cutaneous lymphoid infiltrate mimics a cutaneous pseudolymphoma. (+info)