Drosophila endoderm development requires a novel homeobox gene which is a target of Wingless and Dpp signalling.
We have identified and cloned a novel type of homeobox gene that is composed of two homeodomains and is expressed in the Drosophila endoderm. Mutant analysis reveals that its activity is required at the foregut/midgut boundary for the development of the proventriculus. This organ regulates food passage from the foregut into the midgut and forms by the infolding of ectoderm and endoderm-derived tissues. The endodermal outer wall structure of the proventriculus is collapsed in the mutants leading to a failure of the ectodermal part to invaginate and build a functional multilayered organ. Lack-of-function and gain-of-function experiments show that the expression of this homeobox gene in the proventriculus endoderm is induced in response to Wingless activity emanating from the ectoderm/endoderm boundary whereas its expression in the central midgut is controlled by Dpp and Wingless signalling emanating from the overlying visceral mesoderm. (+info
Lactobacillus salivarius CTC2197 prevents Salmonella enteritidis colonization in chickens.
A rifampin-resistant Lactobacillus salivarius strain, CTC2197, was assessed as a probiotic in poultry, by studying its ability to prevent Salmonella enteritidis C-114 colonization in chickens. When the probiotic strain was dosed by oral gavage together with S. enteritidis C-114 directly into the proventriculus in 1-day-old Leghorn chickens, the pathogen was completely removed from the birds after 21 days. The same results were obtained when the probiotic strain was also administered through the feed and the drinking water apart from direct inoculation into the proventriculus. The inclusion of L. salivarius CTC2197 in the first day chicken feed revealed that a concentration of 10(5) CFU g(-1) was enough to ensure the colonization of the gastrointestinal tract of the birds after 1 week. However, between 21 and 28 days, L. salivarius CTC2197 was undetectable in the gastrointestinal tract of some birds, showing that more than one dose would be necessary to ensure its presence till the end of the rearing time. Freeze-drying and freezing with glycerol or skim milk as cryoprotective agents, appeared to be suitable methods to preserve the probiotic strain. The inclusion of the L. salivarius CTC2197 in a commercial feed mixture seemed to be a good way to supply it on the farm, although the strain showed sensitivity to the temperatures used during the feed mixture storage and in the chicken incubator rooms. Moreover, survival had been improved after several reinoculations in chicken feed mixture. (+info
BMPs are necessary for stomach gland formation in the chicken embryo: a study using virally induced BMP-2 and Noggin expression.
Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions are necessary for the normal development of various digestive organs. In chicken proventriculus (glandular stomach), morphogenesis and differentiation of the epithelium depend upon the inductive signals coming from underlying mesenchyme. However, the nature of such signals is still unclear despite extensive analyses carried out using experimental tissue recombinations. In this study we have examined the possible involvement of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in the formation of stomach glands in the chicken embryo. Analysis of the expression patterns of BMP-2, -4 and -7 showed that these BMPs were present in the proventricular mesenchyme prior to the initiation of the proventricular gland formation. BMP-2 expression, in particular, was restricted to the proventriculus among anterior digestive organs. Virus-mediated BMP-2 overexpression resulted in an increase in the number of glands formed. Moreover, ectopic expression of Noggin, which antagonizes the effect of BMPs, in the proventricular mesenchyme or epithelium, led to the complete inhibition of gland formation, indicating that BMP signals are necessary for the proventricular gland formation. These findings suggest that BMPs are of prime importance as mesenchymal signals for inducing proventricular glands. (+info
Distribution and developmental change of lymphoid tissues in the chicken proventriculus.
In the chicken proventricular mucosa, aggregations of lymphocytes were localized in three different sites of the lamina propria, namely, underneath the surface epithelium, near the duct orifice of the deep proventricular gland, and in the gland tissue itself. In the lymphoid masses underneath the surface epithelium and in those near the duct orifice, CD4+ T lymphocytes and TCR2+ T lymphocytes occupied their central part, and B lymphocytes were localized in the periphery. CD8+ T lymphocytes and TCR1+ lymphocytes were evenly distributed in the masses. Infiltration of lymphocytes into these sites was first observed on the 20th embryonic day. At 1 week after hatching, CD3+ lymphocytes began to occupy the central area of the masses and His-C1+ B lymphocytes tended to be located in the periphery. Ultrastructurally, M cells were found neither in the epithelium of the mucosa nor in that of the excretory duct close to the lymphoid masses. In the deep proventricular gland, the lymphoid masses had a germinal center consisting of B lymphocytes, surrounded by the T lymphocyte-rich periphery. These masses were first recognized at the 3rd post-hatching week, presumably being formed against possible antigens invading into the lumen of the proventricular gland. On the other hand, the lymphoid masses beneath the surface epithelium and those near the duct orifice existing before the hatching period were considered to be prepared to establish the local mucosal immune barriers against the expectant antigenic invasion. (+info
Resistance to Marek's disease herpesvirus-induced lymphoma is multiphasic and dependent on host genotype.
Genotype-dependent differences in Marek's disease (MD) susceptibility were identified using 14-day-old line N and 6(1) (resistant) and 151 and 7(2) (susceptible) inbred chickens infected with HPRS-16 MD virus (MDV). All line 72 chickens developed progressive MD. Line 15I had fluctuating MD-specific clinical signs and individuals recovered. A novel histologic scoring system enabled indices to be calculated for lymphocyte infiltration into nonlymphoid organs. All genotypes had increased mean lesion scores (MLSs) and mean total lesion scores after MDV infection. These differed quantitatively and qualitatively between the genotypes. Lines 6(1) and 7(2) had a similar MLS distribution in the cytolytic phase, although scores were greater in line 7(2). At the time lymphomas were visible in line 7(2), histologic lesions in line 6(1) were regressing. AV37+ cells were present in similar numbers in all genotypes in the cytolytic phase, suggesting that neoplastically transformed cells were present in all genotypes regardless of MD susceptibility. After the cytolytic phase, AV37+ cell numbers increased in lines 7(2) and 15I but decreased in lines 6(1) and N. In the cytolytic and latent phases, in all genotypes, most infiltrating cells were CD4+. After this time, line 7(2) and 15I lesions increased in size and most cells were CD4+; line 6(1) and N lesions decreased in size and most cells were CD8+. In all genotypes, AV37 immunostaining was weak in lesions with many CD8+ cells, suggesting that AV37 antigen expression or AV37+ cells were controlled by CD8+ cells. The rank order, determined by clinical signs and pathology, for MD susceptibility (highest to lowest) was 7(2) > 15I > 6(1) > N. (+info
Pathology of spontaneous hemorrhagic enteritis of turkeys.
Thirteen turkeys naturally affected with hemorrhagic enteritis were studied pathologically. The main gross lesions were splenomegaly and hemorrhagic contents in the gut. The main histological lesions were intranuclear inclusion bodies in largemononuclear cells in many visceral organs and in reticular cells around the sheathed arteries of the spleens and varying degrees of lymphocytic hyperplasia in most tissues. The inclusions were frequently present in areas of the lymphocytic hyperplasia. The large mononuclear cells with the inclusions frequently showed a degenerative change. (+info
Mn2+ ions pass through Ca2+ channels in myoepithelial cells.
1. Intracellular recordings were made from the myoepithelial cells of the proventriculus of the marine polychaete worm Syllis spongiphila. Over-shooting responses were elicited either by carbamylcholine added to the bathing medium or by directly applied intracellular current pulses. 2. In control artificial sea water (ASW) directly applied current pulses elicited regenerative responses of 68-119 mV in amplitude and 70-1800 ms in duration; these responses were associated with contractions of the myoepithelial cells. 3. Both pharmacologically and electrically elicited responses were reversibly abolished in Ca-free ASW and were unaffected by TTX or low-sodium solutions. Regenerative responses were elicited by direct intracellular stimulation in calcium-free ASW containing 1 mM-Ba2+ or 10 mM-Sr2+. Directly elicited responses were blocked reversibly in ASW containing calcium and 15-20 mM-Co2+ or 2.5-10 mM-Ni2+; they were blocked irreversibly in ASW containing calcium and 10 mM-La3+ or 100 microM-Zn2+. 4. Regenerative responses were elicited in Ca-free solutions containing 10-50 mM-Mn2+; these responses were not associated with contractions, were consistently of longer duration than responses elicited in control ASW, and were blocked by 20 mM-Co2+ or 10 mM-La3+. The overshoots of Mn2+ responses elicited in both Na-free and Na-containing, Ca-free solutions increased as the external concentration of Mn2+ was increased, with a slope of about 27 mV per 10-fold change in concentration of Mn2+. In Ca-containing solutions the slope was reduced to about 15 mV per 10-fold change. 5. The results indicate that the myoepithelial cells generate Ca-spikes and that Mn2+ ions, in addition to Sr2+ and Ba2+ ions, pass through the Ca2+ channels of the myoepithelial cell membranes. Although Mn2+ can replace Ca2+ in generating spikes, it apparently cannot replace Ca2+ in initiating contraction, and it many compete with Ca2+ in activating repolarization of the cell. (+info
The occurrence of lipid in the oxyntico-peptic cells of the proventriculus of the fasting domestic fowl.
A histological study has shown that considerable amounts of lipid accumulate in the oxyntico-peptic cells of the proventriculus of domestic fowls deprived of food. Lipid droplets were first seen in the cells 6 hours after commencing the fast and they reached a maximum in 24 hours; a decrease was detected histologically 2 hours after re-feeding and all lipid had disappeared 8 hours after access to food. Lipid was observed in fasted chickens aged from 1 to 27 weeks, in four different breeds, and in certain naturally occurring diseases. Small amounts of lipid were also seen in the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidneys of chickens which had been fasted. The relationship of the lipid to the metabolism of the oxyntico-peptic cells and to certain disease states is discussed. (+info