Cu(II) inhibition of the proton translocation machinery of the influenza A virus M2 protein.
The homotetrameric M2 integral membrane protein of influenza virus forms a proton-selective ion channel. An essential histidine residue (His-37) in the M2 transmembrane domain is believed to play an important role in the conduction mechanism of this channel. Also, this residue is believed to form hydrogen-bonded interactions with the ammonium group of the anti-viral compound, amantadine. A molecular model of this channel suggests that the imidazole side chains of His-37 from symmetry-related monomers of the homotetrameric pore converge to form a coordination site for transition metals. Thus, membrane currents of oocytes of Xenopus laevis expressing the M2 protein were recorded when the solution bathing the oocytes contained various transition metals. Membrane currents were strongly and reversibly inhibited by Cu2+ with biphasic reaction kinetics. The biphasic inhibition curves may be explained by a two-site model involving a fast-binding peripheral site with low specificity for divalent metal ions, as well as a high affinity site (Kdiss approximately 2 microM) that lies deep within the pore and shows rather slow-binding kinetics (kon = 18.6 +/- 0.9 M-1 s-1). The pH dependence of the interaction with the high affinity Cu2+-binding site parallels the pH dependence of inhibition by amantadine, which has previously been ascribed to protonation of His-37. The voltage dependence of the inhibition at the high affinity site indicates that the binding site lies within the transmembrane region of the pore. Furthermore, the inhibition by Cu2+ could be prevented by prior application of the reversible blocker of M2 channel activity, BL-1743, providing further support for the location of the site within the pore region of M2. Finally, substitutions of His-37 by alanine or glycine eliminated the high affinity site and resulted in membrane currents that were only partially inhibited at millimolar concentrations of Cu2+. Binding of Cu2+ to the high affinity site resulted in an approximately equal inhibition of both inward and outward currents. The wild-type protein showed very high specificity for Cu2+ and was only partially inhibited by 1 mM Ni2+, Pt2+, and Zn2+. These data are discussed in terms of the functional role of His-37 in the mechanism of proton translocation through the channel. (+info
Effects of nucleoside analog incorporation on DNA binding to the DNA binding domain of the GATA-1 erythroid transcription factor.
We investigate here the effects of the incorporation of the nucleoside analogs araC (1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine) and ganciclovir (9-[(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl] guanine) into the DNA binding recognition sequence for the GATA-1 erythroid transcription factor. A 10-fold decrease in binding affinity was observed for the ganciclovir-substituted DNA complex in comparison to an unmodified DNA of the same sequence composition. AraC substitution did not result in any changes in binding affinity. 1H-15N HSQC and NOESY NMR experiments revealed a number of chemical shift changes in both DNA and protein in the ganciclovir-modified DNA-protein complex when compared to the unmodified DNA-protein complex. These changes in chemical shift and binding affinity suggest a change in the binding mode of the complex when ganciclovir is incorporated into the GATA DNA binding site. (+info
Mapping of residues in the NADP(H)-binding site of proton-translocating nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase from Escherichia coli. A study of structure and function.
Conformational changes in proton pumping transhydrogenases have been suggested to be dependent on binding of NADP(H) and the redox state of this substrate. Based on a detailed amino acid sequence analysis, it is argued that a classical betaalphabetaalphabeta dinucleotide binding fold is responsible for binding NADP(H). A model defining betaA, alphaB, betaB, betaD, and betaE of this domain is presented. To test this model, four single cysteine mutants (cfbetaA348C, cfbetaA390C, cfbetaK424C, and cfbetaR425C) were introduced into a functional cysteine-free transhydrogenase. Also, five cysteine mutants were constructed in the isolated domain III of Escherichia coli transhydrogenase (ecIIIH345C, ecIIIA348C, ecIIIR350C, ecIIID392C, and ecIIIK424C). In addition to kinetic characterizations, effects of sulfhydryl-specific labeling with N-ethylmaleimide, 2-(4'-maleimidylanilino)naphthalene-6-sulfonic acid, and diazotized 3-aminopyridine adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) were examined. The results are consistent with the view that, in agreement with the model, beta-Ala348, beta-Arg350, beta-Ala390, beta-Asp392, and beta-Lys424 are located in or close to the NADP(H) site. More specifically, beta-Ala348 succeeds betaB. The remarkable reactivity of betaR350C toward NNADP suggests that this residue is close to the nicotinamide moiety of NADP(H). beta-Ala390 and beta-Asp392 terminate or succeed betaD, and are thus, together with the region following betaA, creating the switch point crevice where NADP(H) binds. beta-Asp392 is particularly important for the substrate affinity, but it could also have a more complex role in the coupling mechanism for transhydrogenase. (+info
Conformations of Gly(n)H+ and Ala(n)H+ peptides in the gas phase.
High-resolution ion mobility measurements and molecular dynamics simulations have been used to probe the conformations of protonated polyglycine and polyalanine (Gly(n)H and Ala(n)H+, n = 3-20) in the gas phase. The measured collision integrals for both the polyglycine and the polyalanine peptides are consistent with a self-solvated globule conformation, where the peptide chain wraps around and solvates the charge located on the terminal amine. The conformations of the small peptides are governed entirely by self-solvation, whereas the larger ones have additional backbone hydrogen bonds. Helical conformations, which are stable for neutral Alan peptides, were not observed in the experiments. Molecular dynamics simulations for Ala(n)H+ peptides suggest that the charge destabilizes the helix, although several of the low energy conformations found in the simulations for the larger Ala(n)H+ peptides have small helical regions. (+info
Oxygen-dependent K+ influxes in Mg2+-clamped equine red blood cells.
1. Cl--dependent K+ (86Rb+) influxes were measured in oxygenated and deoxygenated equine red blood cells, whose free [Mg2+]i had been clamped, to examine the effect on O2 dependency of the K+-Cl- cotransporter. 2. Total [Mg2+]i was 2.55 +/- 0.07 mM (mean +/- s.e.m. , n = 6). Free [Mg2+]i was estimated at 0.45 +/- 0.04 and 0.68 +/- 0. 03 mM (mean +/- s.e.m., n = 4) in oxygenated and deoxygenated red cells, respectively. 3. K+-Cl- cotransport was minimal in deoxygenated cells but substantial in oxygenated ones. Cl--dependent K+ influx, inhibited by calyculin A, consistent with mediation via the K+-Cl- cotransporter, was revealed by depleting deoxygenated cells of Mg2+. 4. Decreasing [Mg2+]i stimulated K+ influx, and increasing [Mg2+]i inhibited it, in both oxygenated and deoxygenated red cells. When free [Mg2+]i was clamped, Cl--dependent K+ influxes were always greater in oxygenated cells than in deoxygenated ones, and changes in free [Mg2+]i of the magnitude occurring during oxygenation-deoxygenation cycles had a minimal effect. Physiological fluctuations in free [Mg2+]i are unlikely to provide the primary link coupling activity of the K+-Cl- cotransporter with O2 tension. 5. Volume and H+ ion sensitivity of K+ influx in Mg2+-clamped red cells were increased in O2 compared with those in deoxygenated cells at the same free [Mg2+]i, by about 6- and 2-fold, respectively, but again these features were not responsible for the higher fluxes in oxygenated cells. 6. Regulation of the K+-Cl- cotransporter by O2 is very similar in equine, sheep and in normal human (HbA) red cells, but altered in human sickle cells. Present results imply that, as in sheep red cells, O2 dependence of K+-Cl- cotransport in equine red cells is not mediated via changes in free [Mg2+]i and that cotransport in Mg2+-clamped red cells is still stimulated by O2. This behaviour is contrary to that reported for human sickle (HbS) cells. (+info
Expression of uncoupling protein-3 and mitochondrial activity in the transition from hypothyroid to hyperthyroid state in rat skeletal muscle.
We sought a correlation between rat skeletal muscle triiodothyronine (T3)-mediated regulation of uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) expression and mitochondrial activity. UCP3 mRNA expression increased strongly during the hypothyroid-hyperthyroid transition. The rank order of mitochondrial State 3 and State 4 respiration rates was hypothyroid < euthyroid < hyperthyroid. The State 4 increase may have been due to the increased UCP3 expression, as the proton leak kinetic was stimulated in the hypothyroid-hyperthyroid transition and a good correlation exists between the State 4 and UCP3 mRNA level. As a significant proportion of an organism's resting oxygen consumption is dedicated to opposing the proton leak, skeletal muscle mitochondrial UCP3 may mediate part of T3's effect on energy metabolism. (+info
Direct evidence that the proton motive force inhibits membrane translocation of positively charged residues within membrane proteins.
The M13 phage procoat protein requires both its signal sequence and its membrane anchor sequence in the mature part of the protein for membrane insertion. Translocation of its short acidic periplasmic loop is stimulated by the proton motive force (pmf) and does not require the Sec components. We now find that the pmf becomes increasingly important for the translocation of negatively charged residues within procoat when the hydrophobicity of the signal or membrane anchor is incrementally reduced. In contrast, we find that the pmf inhibits translocation of the periplasmic loop when it contains one or two positively charged residues. This inhibitory effect of the pmf is stronger when the hydrophobicity of the inserting procoat protein is compromised. No pmf effect is observed for translocation of an uncharged periplasmic loop even when the hydrophobicity is reduced. We also show that the Delta Psi component of the pmf is necessary and sufficient for insertion of representative constructs and that the translocation effects of charged residues are primarily due to the DeltaPsi component of the pmf and not the pH component. (+info
High base pair opening rates in tracts of GC base pairs.
Sequence-dependent structural features of the DNA double helix have a strong influence on the base pair opening dynamics. Here we report a detailed study of the kinetics of base pair breathing in tracts of GC base pairs in DNA duplexes derived from 1H NMR measurements of the imino proton exchange rates upon titration with the exchange catalyst ammonia. In the limit of infinite exchange catalyst concentration, the exchange times of the guanine imino protons of the GC tracts extrapolate to much shorter base pair lifetimes than commonly observed for isolated GC base pairs. The base pair lifetimes in the GC tracts are below 5 ms for almost all of the base pairs. The unusually rapid base pair opening dynamics of GC tracts are in striking contrast to the behavior of AT tracts, where very long base pair lifetimes are observed. The implication of these findings for the structural principles governing spontaneous helix opening as well as the DNA-binding specificity of the cytosine-5-methyltransferases, where flipping of the cytosine base has been observed, are discussed. (+info