Protochlorophyllide b does not occur in barley etioplasts.
Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) etioplasts were isolated, and the pigments were extracted with acetone. The extract was analyzed by HPLC. Only protochlorophyllide a and no protochlorophyllide b was detected (limit of detection < 1% of protochlorophyllide a). Protochlorophyllide b was synthesized starting from chlorophyll b and incubated with etioplast membranes and NADPH. In the light, photoconversion to chlorophyllide b was observed, apparently catalyzed by NADPH :protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase. In darkness, reduction of the analogue zinc protopheophorbide b to zinc 7-hydroxy-protopheophorbide a was observed, apparently catalyzed by chlorophyll b reductase. We conclude that protochlorophyllide b does not occur in detectable amounts in etioplasts, and even traces of it as the free pigment are metabolically unstable. Thus the direct experimental evidence contradicts the idea by Reinbothe et al. (Nature 397 (1999) 80-84) of a protochlorophyllide b-containing light-harvesting complex in barley etioplasts. (+info)
Protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase B-catalyzed protochlorophyllide photoreduction in vitro: insight into the mechanism of chlorophyll formation in light-adapted plants.
The mechanism of the protochlorophyllide (PChlide) photoreduction reaction operating in light-adapted plants and catalyzed by NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase B (PORb) has been analyzed by low-temperature fluorescence spectroscopy by using purified barley PORb overexpressed heterologously in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with the maltose-binding protein. We show that the PORb-catalyzed PChlide reduction reaction consists of two steps, one photochemical and the other nonphotochemical. The initial photochemical reaction follows a single quantum mechanism and leads to the formation of an unstable intermediate with mixed pigment electronic structure and an EPR spectrum that suggests the presence of a free electron. The second step involves the spontaneous conversion of the unstable intermediate into chlorophyllide as defined by its spectroscopic characteristics and migration on an HPLC column. Both steps of the reaction can be performed at subzero temperatures in frozen samples, suggesting that they do not include major changes in enzyme conformation or pigment rearrangement within the active site. The rate of the reaction at room temperature depends linearly on enzyme and substrate (PChlide) concentration, and the kinetic parameters are consistent with one molecule of substrate bound per active monomer in solution. The PORb-catalyzed reaction in vitro is spectroscopically similar to that identified in leaves of light-adapted plants, suggesting that the same reaction sequence observed operates in planta. (+info)
Pigment-free NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase from Avena sativa L. Purification and substrate specificity.
The enzyme NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) is the key enzyme for light-dependent chlorophyll biosynthesis. It accumulates in dark-grown plants as the ternary enzyme-substrate complex POR-protochlorophyllide a-NADPH. Here, we describe a simple procedure for purification of pigment-free POR from etioplasts of Avena sativa seedlings. The procedure implies differential solubilization with n-octyl-beta-D-glucoside and one chromatographic step with DEAE-cellulose. We show, using pigment and protein analysis, that etioplasts contain a one-to-one complex of POR and protochlorophyllide a. The preparation of 13 analogues of protochlorophyllide a is described. The analogues differ in the side chains of the macrocycle and in part contain zinc instead of the central magnesium. Six analogues with different side chains at rings A or B are active substrates, seven analogues with different side chains at rings D or E are not accepted as substrates by POR. The kinetics of the light-dependent reaction reveals three groups of substrate analogues with a fast, medium and slow reaction. To evaluate the kinetic data, the molar extinction coefficients in the reaction buffer had to be determined. At concentrations above 2 mole substrate/mole enzyme, inhibition was found for protochlorophyllide a and for the analogues. (+info)
yellow-in-the-dark mutants of Chlamydomonas lack the CHLL subunit of light-independent protochlorophyllide reductase.
Light-independent protochlorophyllide reduction leading to chlorophyll formation in the dark requires both chloroplast and nuclear gene expression in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Mutations in any one of the plastid (chlL, chlN, and chlB) or nuclear (y-1 to y-10) genes required for this process result in the phenotype of the yellow-in-the-dark or y mutants. Analysis of the chlL, chlN, and chlB transcript levels in both light- and dark-grown wild-type and y mutant cells showed that the y mutations have no effect on the transcription of these plastid genes. Protein gel blot analysis showed that the CHLN and CHLB proteins are present in similar amounts in light- and dark-grown wild-type cells, whereas CHLL is present only in wild-type cells grown in the dark or at light intensities < or =15 micromol m(-2) sec(-1). Analysis of chlL transcript distribution on polysome profiles and rates of protein turnover in chloramphenicol-treated cells suggested that CHLL formation is most probably blocked at translation initiation or elongation. Furthermore, treatment of cells with metabolic inhibitors and uncouplers of photosynthetic electron transport showed that regulation of CHLL formation is linked to the physiologic status of the chloroplast. Similar to wild-type cells, y mutants contain nearly identical amounts of CHLN and CHLB when grown in either light or darkness. However, no CHLL is present in any of the y mutants except y-7, which contains an immunoreactive CHLL smaller than the expected size. Our findings indicate that CHLL translation is negatively photoregulated by the energy state or redox potential within the chloroplast in wild-type cells and that nuclear y genes are required for synthesis or accumulation of the CHLL protein. (+info)
Interacting regulatory circuits involved in orderly control of photosynthesis gene expression in Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1.
FnrL, the homolog of the global anaerobic regulator Fnr, is required for the induction of the photosynthetic apparatus in Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1. Thus, the precise role of FnrL in photosynthesis (PS) gene expression and its interaction(s) with other regulators of PS gene expression are of considerable importance to our understanding of the regulatory circuitry governing spectral complex formation. Using a CcoP and FnrL double mutant strain, we obtained results which suggested that FnrL is not involved in the transduction of the inhibitory signal, by which PS gene expression is "silenced," emanating from the cbb(3) oxidase encoded by the ccoNOQP operon under aerobic conditions. The dominant effect of the ccoP mutation in the FnrL mutant strain with respect to spectral complex formation under aerobic conditions and restoration of a PS-positive phenotype suggested that inactivation of the cbb(3) oxidase to some extent bypasses the requirement for FnrL in the formation of spectral complexes. Additional analyses revealed that anaerobic induction of the bchE, hemN, and hemZ genes, which are involved in the tetrapyrrole biosynthetic pathways, requires FnrL. Thus, FnrL appears to be involved at multiple loci involved in the regulation of PS gene expression. Additionally, bchE was also shown to be regulated by the PrrBA two-component system, in conjunction with hemN and hemZ. These and other results to be discussed permit us to more accurately describe the role of FnrL as well as the interactions between the FnrL, PrrBA, and other regulatory circuits in the regulation of PS gene expression. (+info)
A second, substrate-dependent site of protein import into chloroplasts.
Chloroplasts must import a large number of proteins from the cytosol. It generally is assumed that this import proceeds for all stromal and thylakoid proteins in an identical manner and is caused by the operation of two distinctive protein import machineries in the outer and inner plastid envelope, which form the general import site. Here we show that there is a second site of protein translocation into chloroplasts of barley, tobacco, Arabidopsis thaliana, and five other tested monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plant species. This import site is specific for the cytosolic precursor of the NADPH:protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) oxidoreductase A, pPORA. It couples Pchlide synthesis to pPORA import and thereby reduces the actual level of free Pchlide, which, because of its photodynamic properties, would be destructive to the plastids. Consequently, photoprotection is conferred onto the plant. (+info)
NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase from Synechocystis: overexpression, purification and preliminary characterisation.
NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) catalyses the light-dependent reduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide, a key regulatory reaction in the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. POR from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis has been overproduced in Escherichia coli with a hexahistidine tag at the N-terminus. This enzyme (His(6)-POR) has been purified to homogeneity and a preliminary characterisation of its kinetic and substrate binding properties is presented. Chemical modification experiments have been used to demonstrate inhibition of POR activity by the thiol-specific reagent N-ethyl maleimide. Substrate protection experiments reveal that the modified Cys residues are involved in either substrate binding or catalysis. (+info)
The influence of glycerol and chloroplast lipids on the spectral shifts of pigments associated with NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase from Avena sativa L.
Dark-grown angiosperm seedlings lack chlorophylls, but accumulate protochlorophyllide a complexed with the light-dependent enzyme NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase. Previous investigators correlated spectral heterogeneity of in vivo protochlorophyllide forms and a shift of chlorophyllide forms from 680 to 672 nm (Shibata shift) occurring after irradiation, with intact membrane structures which are destroyed by solubilization. We demonstrate here that the various protochlorophyllide forms and the Shibata shift which disappear upon solubilization are restored if the reconstituted complex is treated with plastid lipids and 80% (w/v) glycerol. We hypothesize that the lipids can form a cubic phase and that this is the precondition in vitro and in vivo for the observed spectral properties before and after irradiation. (+info)