Intracellular signalling: PDK1--a kinase at the hub of things.
Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) is at the hub of many signalling pathways, activating PKB and PKC isoenzymes, as well as p70 S6 kinase and perhaps PKA. PDK1 action is determined by colocalization with substrate and by target site availability, features that may enable it to operate in both resting and stimulated cells. (+info)
Myogenic signaling of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase requires the serine-threonine kinase Akt/protein kinase B.
The oncogene p3k, coding for a constitutively active form of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), strongly activates myogenic differentiation. Inhibition of endogenous PI 3-kinase activity with the specific inhibitor LY294002, or with dominant-negative mutants of PI 3-kinase, interferes with myotube formation and with the expression of muscle-specific proteins. Here we demonstrate that a downstream target of PI 3-kinase, serine-threonine kinase Akt, plays an important role in myogenic differentiation. Expression of constitutively active forms of Akt dramatically enhances myotube formation and expression of the muscle-specific proteins MyoD, creatine kinase, myosin heavy chain, and desmin. Transdominant negative forms of Akt inhibit myotube formation and the expression of muscle-specific proteins. The inhibition of myotube formation and the reduced expression of muscle-specific proteins caused by the PI 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 are completely reversed by constitutively active forms of Akt. Wild-type cellular Akt effects a partial reversal of LY294002-induced inhibition of myogenic differentiation. This result suggests that Akt can substitute for PI 3-kinase in the stimulation of myogenesis; Akt may be an essential downstream component of PI 3-kinase-induced muscle differentiation. (+info)
Regulation of G1 progression by the PTEN tumor suppressor protein is linked to inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway.
PTEN/MMAC1 is a tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 10q23. Inherited PTEN/MMAC1 mutations are associated with a cancer predisposition syndrome known as Cowden's disease. Somatic mutation of PTEN has been found in a number of malignancies, including glioblastoma, melanoma, and carcinoma of the prostate and endometrium. The protein product (PTEN) encodes a dual-specificity protein phosphatase and in addition can dephosphorylate certain lipid substrates. Herein, we show that PTEN protein induces a G1 block when reconstituted in PTEN-null cells. A PTEN mutant associated with Cowden's disease (PTEN;G129E) has protein phosphatase activity yet is defective in dephosphorylating inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate in vitro and fails to arrest cells in G1. These data suggest a link between induction of a cell-cycle block by PTEN and its ability to dephosphorylate, in vivo, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate. In keeping with this notion, PTEN can inhibit the phosphatidylinositol 3,4, 5-trisphosphate-dependent Akt kinase, a downstream target of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and constitutively active, but not wild-type, Akt overrides a PTEN G1 arrest. Finally, tumor cells lacking PTEN contain high levels of activated Akt, suggesting that PTEN is necessary for the appropriate regulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. (+info)
Akt-dependent potentiation of L channels by insulin-like growth factor-1 is required for neuronal survival.
The insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)/receptor tyrosine kinase recently has been shown to mediate neuronal survival and potentiate the activity of specific calcium channel subtypes; survival requires Akt, a serine/threonine kinase. We demonstrate here that Akt mediates the IGF-1-induced potentiation of L channel currents, but not that of N channels. Transient expression of wild-type, dominant-negative, and constitutively active forms of Akt in cerebellar granule neurons causes, respectively, no change in IGF-1/L channel potentiation, complete inhibition of potentiation, and a dramatic increase in basal L currents accompanied by the loss of ability to induce further increases. In no case is the IGF-1 potentiation of N currents affected. We additionally find that IGF-1 partially mediates granule neuron survival via L channel activity and that Akt-dependent L channel modulation is a necessary component. Interestingly, very brief exposure (1 min) to IGF-1 triggers nearly complete survival and requires L channel activity. These results strongly suggest that neuronal receptor tyrosine kinases can control long-term calcium-dependent processes via the rapid control of voltage-sensitive channels. (+info)
Hyperglycemia inhibits insulin activation of Akt/protein kinase B but not phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in rat skeletal muscle.
Sustained hyperglycemia impairs insulin-stimulated glucose utilization in the skeletal muscle of both humans and experimental animals--a phenomenon referred to clinically as glucose toxicity. To study how this occurs, a model was developed in which hyperglycemia produces insulin resistance in vitro. Rat extensor digitorum longus muscles were preincubated for 4 h in Krebs-Henseleit solution containing glucose or glucose + insulin at various concentrations, after which insulin action was studied. Preincubation with 25 mmol/l glucose + insulin (10 mU/ml) led to a 70% decrease in the ability of insulin (10 mU/ml) to stimulate glucose incorporation into glycogen and a 30% decrease in 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) uptake, compared with muscles incubated with 0 mmol/l glucose. Glucose incorporation into lipid and its oxidation to CO2 were marginally diminished, if at all. The alterations of glycogen synthesis and 2-DG uptake were first evident after 1 h and were maximal after 2 h of preincubation; they were not observed in muscles preincubated with 25 mmol/l glucose + insulin for 5 min. Preincubation for 4 h with 25 mmol/l glucose in the absence of insulin produced a similar although somewhat smaller decrease in insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis; however, it did not alter 2-DG uptake, glucose oxidation to CO2, or incorporation into lipids. Studies of insulin signaling in the latter muscles revealed that activation of Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) was diminished by 60%, compared with that of muscles preincubated in a glucose-free medium; whereas activation of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase, an upstream regulator of Akt/PKB in the insulin-signaling cascade, and of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, a parallel signal, was unaffected. Immunoblots demonstrated that this was not due to a change in Akt/PKB abundance. The results indicate that hyperglycemia-induced insulin resistance can be studied in rat skeletal muscle in vitro. They suggest that impairment of insulin action in these muscles is related to inhibition of Akt/PKB by events that do not affect PI 3-kinase. (+info)
Muscle fiber type-specific defects in insulin signal transduction to glucose transport in diabetic GK rats.
To determine whether defects in the insulin signal transduction pathway to glucose transport occur in a muscle fiber type-specific manner, post-receptor insulin-signaling events were assessed in oxidative (soleus) and glycolytic (extensor digitorum longus [EDL]) skeletal muscle from Wistar or diabetic GK rats. In soleus muscle from GK rats, maximal insulin-stimulated (120 nmol/l) glucose transport was significantly decreased, compared with that of Wistar rats. In EDL muscle from GK rats, maximal insulin-stimulated glucose transport was normal, while the submaximal response was reduced compared with that of Wistar rats. We next treated diabetic GK rats with phlorizin for 4 weeks to determine whether restoration of glycemia would lead to improved insulin signal transduction. Phlorizin treatment of GK rats resulted in full restoration of insulin-stimulated glucose transport in soleus and EDL muscle. In soleus muscle from GK rats, submaximal and maximal insulin-stimulated insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and IRS-1-associated phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase activity were markedly reduced, compared with that of Wistar rats, but only submaximal insulin-stimulated PI 3-kinase was restored after phlorizin treatment. In EDL muscle, insulin-stimulated IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and IRS-1-associated PI-3 kinase were not altered between GK and Wistar rats. Maximal insulin-stimulated Akt (protein kinase B) kinase activity is decreased in soleus muscle from GK rats and restored upon normalization of glycemia (Krook et al., Diabetes 46:2100-2114, 1997). Here, we show that in EDL muscle from GK rats, maximal insulin-stimulated Akt kinase activity is also impaired and restored to Wistar rat levels after phlorizin treatment. In conclusion, functional defects in IRS-1 and PI 3-kinase in skeletal muscle from diabetic GK rats are fiber-type-specific, with alterations observed in oxidative, but not glycolytic, muscle. Furthermore, regardless of muscle fiber type, downstream steps to PI 3-kinase (i.e., Akt and glucose transport) are sensitive to changes in the level of glycemia. (+info)
Protein kinase Czeta is a negative regulator of protein kinase B activity.
Protein kinase B (PKB), also known as Akt or RAC-PK, is a serine/threonine kinase that can be activated by growth factors via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. In this article we show that PKCzeta but not PKCalpha and PKCdelta can co-immunoprecipitate PKB from CHO cell lysates. Association of PKB with PKCzeta was also found in COS-1 cells transiently expressing PKB and PKCzeta, and moreover we found that this association is mediated by the AH domain of PKB. Stimulation of COS-1 cells with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) resulted in a decrease in the PKB-PKCzeta interaction. The use of kinase-inactive mutants of both kinases revealed that dissociation of the complex depends upon PKB activity. Analysis of the activities of the interacting kinases showed that PDGF-induced activation of PKCzeta was not affected by co-expression of PKB. However, both PDGF- and p110-CAAX-induced activation of PKB were significantly abolished in cells co-expressing PKCzeta. In contrast, co-expression of a kinase-dead PKCzeta mutant showed an increased induction of PKB activity upon PDGF treatment. Downstream signaling of PKB, such as the inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3, was also reduced by co-expression of PKCzeta. A clear inhibitory effect of PKCzeta was found on the constitutively active double PKB mutant (T308D/S473D). In summary, our results demonstrate that PKB interacts with PKCzeta in vivo and that PKCzeta acts as a negative regulator of PKB. (+info)
A human protein kinase Bgamma with regulatory phosphorylation sites in the activation loop and in the C-terminal hydrophobic domain.
We have cloned human protein kinase Bgamma (PKBgamma) and found that it contains two regulatory phosphorylation sites, Thr305 and Ser472, which correspond to Thr308 and Ser473 of PKBalpha. Thus it differs significantly from the previously published rat PKBgamma. We have also isolated a similar clone from a mouse cDNA library. In human tissues, PKBgamma is widely expressed as two transcripts. A mutational analysis of the two regulatory sites of human PKBgamma showed that phosphorylation of both sites, occurring in a phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent manner, is required for full activity. Our results suggest that the two phosphorylation sites act in concert to produce full activation of PKBgamma, similar to PKBalpha. This contrasts with rat PKBgamma, which is thought to be regulated by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 alone. (+info)