(1/10201) A single nuclear transcript encoding mitochondrial RPS14 and SDHB of rice is processed by alternative splicing: common use of the same mitochondrial targeting signal for different proteins.
The rice mitochondrial genome has a sequence homologous to the gene for ribosomal protein S14 (rps14), but the coding sequence is interrupted by internal stop codons. A functional rps14 gene was isolated from the rice nuclear genome, suggesting a gene-transfer event from the mitochondrion to the nucleus. The nuclear rps14 gene encodes a long N-terminal extension showing significant similarity to a part of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) protein from human and a malarial parasite (Plasmodium falciparum). Isolation of a functional rice sdhB cDNA and subsequent sequence comparison to the nuclear rps14 indicate that the 5' portions of the two cDNAs are identical. The sdhB genomic sequence shows that the SDHB-coding region is divided into two exons. Surprisingly, the RPS14-coding region is located between the two exons. DNA gel blot analysis indicates that both sdhB and rps14 are present at a single locus in the rice nucleus. These findings strongly suggest that the two gene transcripts result from a single mRNA precursor by alternative splicing. Protein blot analysis shows that the size of the mature RPS14 is 16.5 kDa, suggesting removal of the N-terminal 22.6-kDa peptide region. Considering that the rice mitochondrial genome lacks the sdhB gene but contains the rps14-related sequence, transfer of the sdhB gene seems to have occurred before the transfer of the rps14 gene. The migration of the mitochondrial rps14 sequence into the already existing sdhB gene could bestow the capacity for nuclear expression and mitochondrial targeting. (+info)
(2/10201) Intragenic inversion of mtDNA: a new type of pathogenic mutation in a patient with mitochondrial myopathy.
We report an unusual molecular defect in the mitochondrially encoded ND1 subunit of NADH ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) in a patient with mitochondrial myopathy and isolated complex I deficiency. The mutation is an inversion of seven nucleotides within the ND1 gene, which maintains the reading frame. The inversion, which alters three highly conserved amino acids in the polypeptide, was heteroplasmic in the patient's muscle but was not detectable in blood. This is the first report of a pathogenic inversion mutation in human mtDNA. (+info)
(3/10201) Distinct NMDA receptor subpopulations contribute to long-term potentiation and long-term depression induction.
Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are persistent modifications of synaptic strength that have been implicated in learning, memory, and neuronal development. Despite their opposing effects, both forms of plasticity can be triggered by the activation of NMDA receptors. One mechanism proposed for this bidirectional response is that the specific patterns of afferent stimulation producing LTP and LTD activate to different degrees a uniform receptor population. A second possibility is that these patterns activate separate receptor subpopulations composed of different NMDA receptor (NR) subunits. To test this hypothesis we examined the inhibition of LTP and LTD by a series of competitive NMDA receptor antagonists that varied in their affinities for NR2A/B and NR2C/D subunits. The potency for the inhibition of LTP compared with inhibition of LTD varied widely among the agents. Antagonists with higher affinity for NR2A/B subunits relative to NRC/D subunits showed more potent inhibition of LTP than of LTD. D-3-(2-carboxypiperazine-4-yl)-1-propenyl-1-phosphonic acid, which binds to NR2A/B with very high affinity relative to NR2C/D, showed an approximately 1000-fold higher potency for LTP than for LTD. These results show that distinct subpopulations of NMDA receptors characterized by different NR2 subunits contribute to the induction mechanisms of potentiation and depression. (+info)
(4/10201) Structural characterization of the cysteine-rich domain of TFIIH p44 subunit.
In an effort to understand the structure function relationship of TFIIH, a transcription/repair factor, we focused our attention on the p44 subunit, which plays a central role in both mechanisms. The amino-terminal portion of p44 has been shown to be involved in the regulation of the XPD helicase activity; here we show that its carboxyl-terminal domain is essential for TFIIH transcription activity and that it binds three zinc atoms through two independent modules. The first contains a C4 zinc finger motif, whereas the second is characterized by a CX(2)CX(2-4)FCADCD motif, corresponding to interleaved zinc binding sites. The solution structure of this second module reveals an unexpected homology with the regulatory domain of protein kinase C and provides a framework to study its role at the molecular level. (+info)
(5/10201) Phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 of the regulatory subunit of retinal cGMP phosphodiesterase. I. Identification of the kinase and its role in the turnoff of phosphodiesterase in vitro.
Cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) is an essential component in retinal phototransduction. PDE is regulated by Pgamma, the regulatory subunit of PDE, and GTP/Talpha, the GTP-bound alpha subunit of transducin. In previous studies (Tsuboi, S., Matsumoto, H. , Jackson, K. W., Tsujimoto, K., Williamas, T., and Yamazaki, A. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 15016-15023; Tsuboi, S., Matsumoto, H., and Yamazaki, A. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 15024-15029), we showed that Pgamma is phosphorylated by a previously unknown kinase (Pgamma kinase) in a GTP-dependent manner in photoreceptor outer segment membranes. We also showed that phosphorylated Pgamma loses its ability to interact with GTP/Talpha, but gains a 10-15 times higher ability to inhibit GTP/Talpha-activated PDE than that of nonphosphorylated Pgamma. Thus, we propose that the Pgamma phosphorylation is probably involved in the recovery phase of phototransduction through shut off of GTP/Talpha-activated PDE. Here we demonstrate that all known Pgammas preserve a consensus motif for cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 (Cdk5), a protein kinase believed to be involved in neuronal cell development, and that Pgamma kinase is Cdk5 complexed with p35, a neuronal Cdk5 activator. Mutational analysis of Pgamma indicates that all known Pgammas contain a P-X-T-P-R sequence and that this sequence is required for the Pgamma phosphorylation by Pgamma kinase. In three different column chromatographies of a cytosolic fraction of frog photoreceptor outer segments, the Pgamma kinase activity exactly coelutes with Cdk5 and p35. The Pgamma kinase activity ( approximately 85%) is also immunoprecipitated by a Cdk5-specific antibody, and the immunoprecipitate phosphorylates Pgamma. Finally, recombinant Cdk5/p35, which were expressed using clones from a bovine retina cDNA library, phosphorylates Pgamma in frog outer segment membranes in a GTP-dependent manner. These observations suggest that Cdk5 is probably involved in the recovery phase of phototransduction through phosphorylation of Pgamma complexed with GTP/Talpha in mature vertebrate retinal photoreceptors. (+info)
(6/10201) Phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 of the regulatory subunit of retinal cGMP phosphodiesterase. II. Its role in the turnoff of phosphodiesterase in vivo.
Retinal cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) is regulated by Pgamma, the regulatory subunit of PDE, and GTP/Talpha, the GTP-bound alpha subunit of transducin. In the accompanying paper (Matsuura, I., Bondarenko, V. A., Maeda, T., Kachi, S., Yamazaki, M., Usukura, J., Hayashi, F., and Yamazaki, A. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 32950-32957), we have shown that all known Pgammas contain a specific phosphorylation motif for cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 (Cdk5) and that the unknown kinase is Cdk5 complexed with its activator. Here, using frog rod photoreceptor outer segments (ROS) isolated by a new method, we show that Cdk5 is involved in light-dependent Pgamma phosphorylation in vivo. Under dark conditions only negligible amounts of Pgamma were phosphorylated. However, under illumination that bleached less than 0.3% of the rhodopsin, approximately 4% of the total Pgamma was phosphorylated in less than 10 s. Pgamma dephosphorylation occurred in less than 1 s after the light was turned off. Analysis of the phosphorylated amino acid, inhibition of Pgamma phosphorylation by Cdk inhibitors in vivo and in vitro, and two-dimensional peptide map analysis of Pgamma phosphorylated in vivo and in vitro indicate that Cdk5 phosphorylates a Pgamma threonine in the same manner in vivo and in vitro. These observations, together with immunological data showing the presence of Cdk5 in ROS, suggest that Cdk5 is involved in light-dependent Pgamma phosphorylation in ROS and that the phosphorylation is significant and reversible. In an homogenate of frog ROS, PDE activated by light/guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTPgammaS) was inhibited by Pgamma alone, but not by Pgamma complexed with GDP/Talpha or GTPgammaS/Talpha. Under these conditions, Pgamma phosphorylated by Cdk5 inhibited the light/GTPgammaS-activated PDE even in the presence of GTPgammaS/Talpha. These observations suggest that phosphorylated Pgamma interacts with and inhibits light/GTPgammaS-activated PDE, but does not interact with GTPgammaS/Talpha in the homogenate. Together, our results strongly suggest that after activation of PDE by light/GTP, Pgamma is phosphorylated by Cdk5 and the phosphorylated Pgamma inhibits GTP/Talpha-activated PDE, even in the presence of GTP/Talpha in ROS. (+info)
(7/10201) Mitochondrial F(0)F(1) ATP synthase. Subunit regions on the F1 motor shielded by F(0), Functional significance, and evidence for an involvement of the unique F(0) subunit F(6).
Studies reported here were undertaken to gain greater molecular insight into the complex structure of mitochondrial ATP synthase (F(0)F(1)) and its relationship to the enzyme's function and motor-related properties. Significantly, these studies, which employed N-terminal sequence, mass spectral, proteolytic, immunological, and functional analyses, led to the following novel findings. First, at the top of F(1) within F(0)F(1), all six N-terminal regions derived from alpha + beta subunits are shielded, indicating that one or more F(0) subunits forms a "cap." Second, at the bottom of F(1) within F(0)F(1), the N-terminal region of the single delta subunit and the C-terminal regions of all three alpha subunits are shielded also by F(0). Third, and in contrast, part of the gamma subunit located at the bottom of F(1) is already shielded in F(1), indicating that there is a preferential propensity for interaction with other F(1) subunits, most likely delta and epsilon. Fourth, and consistent with the first two conclusions above that specific regions at the top and bottom of F(1) are shielded by F(0), further proteolytic shaving of alpha and beta subunits at these locations eliminates the capacity of F(1) to couple a proton gradient to ATP synthesis. Finally, evidence was obtained that the F(0) subunit called "F(6)," unique to animal ATP synthases, is involved in shielding F(1). The significance of the studies reported here, in relation to current views about ATP synthase structure and function in animal mitochondria, is discussed. (+info)
(8/10201) Characterization of peroxisomal Pex5p from rat liver. Pex5p in the Pex5p-Pex14p membrane complex is a transmembrane protein.
Pex5p is the receptor for the vast majority of peroxisomal matrix proteins. Here, we show that about 15% of rat liver Pex5p is found in the peroxisomal fraction representing 0.06% of total peroxisomal protein. This population of Pex5p displays all the characteristics of an intrinsic membrane protein. Protease protection assays indicate that this pool of Pex5p has domains exposed on both sides of the peroxisomal membrane. The strong interaction of Pex5p with the membrane of the organelle is not affected by mild protease treatment of intact organelles, conditions that result in the partial degradation of Pex13p. Cytosolic Pex5p is a monomeric protein. In contrast, virtually all peroxisomal Pex5p was found to be part of a stable 250-kDa protein assembly. This complex was isolated and shown to comprise just two subunits, Pex5p and Pex14p. (+info)