The yeast ser/thr phosphatases sit4 and ppz1 play opposite roles in regulation of the cell cycle.
Yeast cells overexpressing the Ser/Thr protein phosphatase Ppz1 display a slow-growth phenotype. These cells recover slowly from alpha-factor or nutrient depletion-induced G1 arrest, showing a considerable delay in bud emergence as well as in the expression of the G1 cyclins Cln2 and Clb5. Therefore, an excess of the Ppz1 phosphatase interferes with the normal transition from G1 to S phase. The growth defect is rescued by overexpression of the HAL3/SIS2 gene, encoding a negative regulator of Ppz1. High-copy-number expression of HAL3/SIS2 has been reported to improve cell growth and to increase expression of G1 cyclins in sit4 phosphatase mutants. We show here that the described effects of HAL3/SIS2 on sit4 mutants are fully mediated by the Ppz1 phosphatase. The growth defect caused by overexpression of PPZ1 is intensified in strains with low G1 cyclin levels (such as bck2Delta or cln3Delta mutants), whereas mutation of PPZ1 rescues the synthetic lethal phenotype of sit4 cln3 mutants. These results reveal a role for Ppz1 as a regulatory component of the yeast cell cycle, reinforce the notion that Hal3/Sis2 serves as a negative modulator of the biological functions of Ppz1, and indicate that the Sit4 and Ppz1 Ser/Thr phosphatases play opposite roles in control of the G1/S transition. (+info)
Purification and identification of a novel subunit of protein serine/threonine phosphatase 4.
The catalytic subunit of protein serine/threonine phosphatase 4 (PP4C) has greater than 65% amino acid identity to the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2AC). Despite this high homology, PP4 does not appear to associate with known PP2A regulatory subunits. As a first step toward characterization of PP4 holoenzymes and identification of putative PP4 regulatory subunits, PP4 was purified from bovine testis soluble extracts. PP4 existed in two complexes of approximately 270-300 and 400-450 kDa as determined by gel filtration chromatography. The smaller PP4 complex was purified by sequential phenyl-Sepharose, Source 15Q, DEAE2, and Superdex 200 gel filtration chromatographies. The final product contained two major proteins: the PP4 catalytic subunit plus a protein that migrated as a doublet of 120-125 kDa on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The associated protein, termed PP4R1, and PP4C also bound to microcystin-Sepharose. Mass spectrometry analysis of the purified complex revealed two major peaks, at 35 (PP4C) and 105 kDa (PP4R1). Amino acid sequence information of several peptides derived from the 105 kDa protein was utilized to isolate a human cDNA clone. Analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence revealed 13 nonidentical repeats similar to repeats found in the A subunit of PP2A (PP2AA). The PP4R1 cDNA clone engineered with an N-terminal Myc tag was expressed in COS M6 cells and PP4C co-immunoprecipitated with Myc-tagged PP4R1. These data indicate that one form of PP4 is similar to the core complex of PP2A in that it consists of a catalytic subunit and a "PP2AA-like" structural subunit. (+info)
The expression of casein kinase 2alpha' and phosphatase 2A activity.
Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity may be differentially regulated by the expression of proteins containing a related amino acid sequence motif such as the casein kinase 2alpha (CK2alpha) subunit or SV40 small t antigen (SVt). Expression of CK2alpha increases PP2A activity whereas SVt decreases its activity. In this work we have tested for the effect of the expression of a third protein containing a similar motif that could be involved in PP2A regulation, the catalytic casein kinase 2alpha' subunit. Our results show that despite the structural similarity of this protein with the other CK2 catalytic (alpha) subunit, the function of the two subunits with respect to the modulation of PP2A activity is quite different: CK2alpha increases whereas CK2alpha' slightly decreases PP2A activity. (+info)
Molecular characterization of the B' regulatory subunit gene family of Arabidopsis protein phosphatase 2A.
Type 2A serine/threonine protein phosphatases (PP2A) have been implicated as important mediators of a diverse array of reversible protein phosphorylation events in plants. We have identified a novel Arabidopsis gene (AtB' delta) which encodes a 55-kDa B' type regulatory subunit of PP2A. The protein encoded by this gene is 57-63% identical and 69-74% similar to the previously identified AtB' genes. The AtB' delta gene appears to be expressed in all Arabidopsis organs indicating its protein product has a basic housekeeping function in plant cells. Unlike certain mRNAs derived from the AtB' gamma gene, AtB' delta mRNAs do not fluctuate significantly in response to heat stress. Further analysis of cDNA sequences derived from the AtB' genes identified an alternatively spliced cDNA derived from AtB' gamma. This cDNA differs from the previously identified AtB' gamma cDNA by the absence of a 133-bp region in its 5' untranslated region. The missing 133-bp region appears to constitute an unspliced intron and its presence in the AtB' gamma gene was confirmed by PCR using Arabidopsis genomic DNA as a template. AtB' gamma mRNA containing the 133-bp intron accumulate in all Arabidopsis organs and their levels fluctuate differentially in response to heat stress. The 133-bp insert contains two short open reading frames and hence might serve as a translational control mechanism affecting AtB' gamma protein synthesis. Finally we show, using both the yeast two hybrid system and in vitro binding assays, that the B' subunit of Arabidopsis PP2A is able to associate with other PP2A subunits, supporting the notion that the B' protein serves as a regulator of PP2A activity in plants. (+info)
Regulation of beta-catenin signaling by the B56 subunit of protein phosphatase 2A.
Dysregulation of Wnt-beta-catenin signaling disrupts axis formation in vertebrate embryos and underlies multiple human malignancies. The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein, axin, and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta form a Wnt-regulated signaling complex that mediates the phosphorylation-dependent degradation of beta-catenin. A protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) regulatory subunit, B56, interacted with APC in the yeast two-hybrid system. Expression of B56 reduced the abundance of beta-catenin and inhibited transcription of beta-catenin target genes in mammalian cells and Xenopus embryo explants. The B56-dependent decrease in beta-catenin was blocked by oncogenic mutations in beta-catenin or APC, and by proteasome inhibitors. B56 may direct PP2A to dephosphorylate specific components of the APC-dependent signaling complex and thereby inhibit Wnt signaling. (+info)
Alpha4 protein as a common regulator of type 2A-related serine/threonine protein phosphatases.
The catalytic activity of the C subunit of serine/threonine phosphatase 2A is regulated by the association with A (PR65) and B subunits. It has been reported that the alpha4 protein, a yeast homolog of the Tap42 protein, binds the C subunit of serine/threonine phosphatase 2A and protein phosphatase 2A-related protein phosphatases such as protein phosphatase 4 and protein phosphatase 6. In the present study, we showed that alpha4 binds these three phosphatases and the association of alpha4 reduces the activities of these phosphatases in vitro. In contrast, PR65 binds to the C subunit of serine/threonine phosphatase 2A but not to protein phosphatase 4 and protein phosphatase 6. These results suggest that the alpha4 protein is a common regulator of the C subunit of serine/threonine phosphatase 2A and protein phosphatase 2A-related protein phosphatases. (+info)
Methylated C-terminal leucine residue of PP2A catalytic subunit is important for binding of regulatory Balpha subunit.
Methylation of the C-terminal leucine residue (Leu309) of protein serine/threonine phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit (PP2AC) is known to regulate catalytic activity in vitro, but the functional consequence(s) of this post-translational modification in the context of the cell remain unclear. Alkali-induced demethylation of PP2AC in purified PP2A heterotrimer (ABalphaC), but not in purified PP2A heterodimer (AC), indicated that a larger fraction of PP2AC is carboxymethylated in ABalphaC than in AC. To explore the role of Leu309 in PP2A holoenzyme assembly, epitope-tagged PP2A catalytic subunit (HA-PP2A) and a mutant of HA-PP2A containing an alanine residue in place of Leu309 (HA-PP2A-L309A) were transiently expressed in COS cells. Both recombinant proteins exhibited serine/threonine phosphatase activity when immunoisolated from COS cell extracts. HA-PP2A, but not HA-PP2A-L309A, was carboxymethylated in vitro. A chromatographic analysis of cell extracts indicated that most endogenous PP2AC and HA-PP2A were co-eluted with the A and Balpha regulatory subunits of PP2A, whereas most HA-PP2A-L309A seemed to elute with the A subunit as a smaller complex or, alternatively, as free catalytic (C) subunit. The A subunit co-immunoisolated with both tagged proteins; however, substantially less Balpha subunit co-immunoisolated with HA-PP2A-L309A than with HA-PP2A. These results demonstrate that the reversibly methylated C-terminal leucine residue of PP2AC is important for Balpha regulatory subunit binding. Furthermore, the results provide evidence for an interrelationship between PP2AC carboxymethylation and PP2A holoenzyme assembly. (+info)
Protein phosphatase 2A interacts with the 70-kDa S6 kinase and is activated by inhibition of FKBP12-rapamycinassociated protein.
The FKBP12-rapamycin-associated protein (FRAP; also called RAFT1/mTOR) regulates translation initiation and entry into the cell cycle. Depriving cells of amino acids or treating them with the small molecule rapamycin inhibits FRAP and results in rapid dephosphorylation and inactivation of the translational regulators 4E-BP1(eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1) and p70(s6k) (the 70-kDa S6 kinase). Data published recently have led to the view that FRAP acts as a traditional mitogen-activated kinase, directly phosphorylating 4E-BP1 and p70(s6k) in response to mitogenic stimuli. We present evidence that FRAP controls 4E-BP1 and p70(s6k) phosphorylation indirectly by restraining a phosphatase. A calyculin A-sensitive phosphatase is required for the rapamycin- or amino acid deprivation-induced dephosphorylation of p70(s6k), and treatment of Jurkat I cells with rapamycin increases the activity of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) toward 4E-BP1. PP2A is shown to associate with p70(s6k) but not with a mutated p70(s6k) that is resistant to rapamycin- and amino acid deprivation-mediated dephosphorylation. FRAP also is shown to phosphorylate PP2A in vitro, consistent with a model in which phosphorylation of PP2A by FRAP prevents the dephosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and p70(s6k), whereas amino acid deprivation or rapamycin treatment inhibits FRAP's ability to restrain the phosphatase. (+info)