All-trans-retinoic acid inhibits Jun N-terminal kinase by increasing dual-specificity phosphatase activity.
Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are serine-threonine kinases that play a critical role in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation. We previously observed that JNK activity is suppressed by all-trans-retinoic acid (t-RA), a ligand for retinoic acid nuclear receptors (RARs), in normal human bronchial epithelial cells, which are growth inhibited by t-RA. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which t-RA inhibits JNK and the possibility that this signaling event is blocked in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Virtually all NSCLC cell lines are resistant to the growth-inhibitory effects of t-RA, and a subset of them have a transcriptional defect specific to retinoid nuclear receptors. We found that in NSCLC cells expressing functional retinoid receptors, serum-induced JNK phosphorylation and activity were inhibited by t-RA in a bimodal pattern, transiently within 30 min and in a sustained fashion beginning at 12 h. Retinoid receptor transcriptional activation was required for the late, but not the early, suppression of JNK activity. t-RA inhibited serum-induced JNK activity by blocking mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase 4-induced signaling events. This effect of t-RA was phosphatase dependent and involved an increase in the expression of the dual-specificity MAP kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP-1). t-RA did not activate MKP-1 expression or inhibit JNK activity in a NSCLC cell line with retinoid receptors that are refractory to ligand-induced transcriptional activation. These findings provide the first evidence that t-RA suppresses JNK activity by inhibiting JNK phosphorylation. Retinoid receptor transcriptional activation was necessary for the sustained inhibition of JNK activity by t-RA, and this signaling event was disrupted in NSCLC cells with retinoid receptors that are refractory to ligand-induced transcriptional activation. (+info)
gp49B1 inhibits IgE-initiated mast cell activation through both immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs, recruitment of src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1, and suppression of early and late calcium mobilization.
We define by molecular, pharmacologic, and physiologic approaches the proximal mechanism by which the immunoglobulin superfamily member gp49B1 inhibits mast cell activation mediated by the high affinity Fc receptor for IgE (FcepsilonRI). In rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 cells expressing transfected mouse gp49B1, mutation of tyrosine to phenylalanine in either of the two immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs of the gp49B1 cytoplasmic domain partially suppressed gp49B1-mediated inhibition of exocytosis, whereas mutation of both abolished inhibitory capacity. Sodium pervanadate elicited tyrosine phosphorylation of native gp49B1 and association of the tyrosine phosphatases src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) and SHP-2 in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (mBMMCs). SHP-1 associated transiently with gp49B1 within 1 min after coligation of gp49B1 with cross-linked FcepsilonRI in mBMMCs. SHP-1-deficient mBMMCs exhibited a partial loss of gp49B1-mediated inhibition of FcepsilonRI-induced exocytosis at concentrations of IgE providing optimal exocytosis, revealing a central, but not exclusive, SHP-1 requirement in the counter-regulatory pathway. Coligation of gp49B1 with cross-linked FcepsilonRI on mBMMCs inhibited early release of calcium from intracellular stores and subsequent influx of extracellular calcium, consistent with SHP-1 participation. Because exocytosis is complete within 2 min in mBMMCs, our studies establish a role for SHP-1 in the initial counter-regulatory cellular responses whereby gp49B1 immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs rapidly transmit inhibition of FcepsilonRI-mediated exocytosis. (+info)
Expression of dominant-negative src-homology domain 2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-1 results in increased Syk tyrosine kinase activity and B cell activation.
The Src-homology domain 2 (SH2)-containing cytoplasmic tyrosine phosphatase, SHP-1 (SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-1), interacts with several B cell surface and intracellular signal transduction molecules through its SH2 domains. Mice with the motheaten and viable motheaten mutations are deficient in SHP-1 and lack most mature B cells. To define the role of SHP-1 in mature B cells, we expressed phosphatase-inactive SHP-1 (C453S) in a mature B cell lymphoma line. SHP-1 (C453S) retains the ability to bind to both substrates and appropriate tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins and therefore can compete with the endogenous wild-type enzyme. We found that B cells expressing SHP-1 (C453S) demonstrated enhanced and prolonged tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins with molecular masses of 110, 70, and 55-60 kDa after stimulation with anti-mouse IgG. The tyrosine kinase Syk was hyperphosphorylated and hyperactive in B cells expressing SHP-1 (C453S). SHP-1 and Syk were coimmunoprecipitated from wild-type K46 cells, K46 SHP-1 (C453S) cells, and splenic B cells, and SHP-1 dephosphorylated Syk. Cells expressing SHP-1 (C453S) showed increased Ca2+ mobilization, extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation, and homotypic adhesion after B cell Ag receptor engagement. Thus, SHP-1 regulates multiple early and late events in B lymphocyte activation. (+info)
A herpesvirus ribosome-associated, RNA-binding protein confers a growth advantage upon mutants deficient in a GADD34-related function.
The herpes simplex virus type 1 gamma34.5 gene product and the cellular GADD34 protein both contain similar domains that can regulate the activity of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2), a critical translation initiation factor. Viral mutants that lack the GADD34-related function grow poorly on a variety of malignant human cells, as activation of the cellular PKR kinase leads to the accumulation of inactive, phosphorylated eIF2 at late times postinfection. Termination of translation prior to the completion of the viral reproductive cycle leads to impaired growth. Extragenic suppressors that regain the ability to synthesize proteins efficiently in the absence of the viral GADD34-related function have been isolated. These suppressor alleles are dominant in trans and affect the steady-state accumulation of several viral mRNA species. We demonstrate that deregulated expression of Us11, a virus-encoded RNA-binding, ribosome-associated protein is necessary and sufficient to confer a growth advantage upon viral mutants that lack a GADD34-related function. Ectopic expression of Us11 reduces the accumulation of the activated cellular PKR kinase and allows for sustained protein synthesis. Thus, an RNA-binding, ribosome-associated protein (Us11) and a GADD34-related protein (gamma34.5) both function in a signal pathway that regulates translation by modulating eIF2 phosphorylation. (+info)
Characterization of the inhibition of protein phosphatase-1 by DARPP-32 and inhibitor-2.
Phospho-DARPP-32 (where DARPP-32 is dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, Mr 32,000), its homolog, phospho-inhibitor-1, and inhibitor-2 are potent inhibitors (IC50 approximately 1 nM) of the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase-1 (PP1). Our previous studies have indicated that a region encompassing residues 6-11 (RKKIQF) and phospho-Thr-34, of phospho-DARPP-32, interacts with PP1. However, little is known about specific regions of inhibitor-2 that interact with PP1. We have now characterized in detail the interaction of phospho-DARPP-32 and inhibitor-2 with PP1. Mutagenesis studies indicate that within DARPP-32 Phe-11 and Ile-9 play critical roles, with Lys-7 playing a lesser role in inhibition of PP1. Pro-33 and Pro-35 are also important, as is the number of amino acids between residues 7 and 11 and phospho-Thr-34. For inhibitor-2, deletion of amino acids 1-8 (I2-(9-204)) or 100-204 (I2-(1-99)) had little effect on the ability of the mutant proteins to inhibit PP1. Further deletion of residues 9-13 (I2-(14-204)) resulted in a large decrease in inhibitory potency (IC50 approximately 800 nM), whereas further COOH-terminal deletion (I2-(1-84)) caused a moderate decrease in inhibitory potency (IC50 approximately 10 nM). Within residues 9-13 (PIKGI), mutagenesis indicated that Ile-10, Lys-11, and Ile-13 play critical roles. The peptide I2-(6-20) antagonized the inhibition of PP-1 by inhibitor-2 but had no effect on inhibition by phospho-DARPP-32. In contrast, the peptide D32-(6-38) antagonized the inhibition of PP1 by phospho-DARPP-32, inhibitor-2, and I2-(1-120) but not I2-(85-204). These results indicate that distinct amino acid motifs contained within the NH2 termini of phospho-DARPP-32 (KKIQF, where italics indicate important residues) and inhibitor-2 (IKGI) are critical for inhibition of PP1. Moreover, residues 14-84 of inhibitor-2 and residues 6-38 of phospho-DARPP-32 share elements that are important for interaction with PP1. (+info)
Transcriptional activation of the glucose transporter GLUT1 in ventricular cardiac myocytes by hypertrophic agonists.
Myocardial hypertrophy is associated with increased basal glucose metabolism. Basal glucose transport into cardiac myocytes is mediated by the GLUT1 isoform of glucose transporters, whereas the GLUT4 isoform is responsible for regulatable glucose transport. Treatment of neonatal cardiac myocytes with the hypertrophic agonist 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate or phenylephrine increased expression of Glut1 mRNA relative to Glut4 mRNA. To study the transcriptional regulation of GLUT1 expression, myocytes were transfected with luciferase reporter constructs under the control of the Glut1 promoter. Stimulation of the cells with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate or phenylephrine induced transcription from the Glut1 promoter, which was inhibited by cotransfection with the mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatases CL100 and MKP-3. Cotransfection of the myocytes with constitutively active versions of Ras and MEK1 or an estrogen-inducible version of Raf1 also stimulated transcription from the Glut1 promoter. Hypertrophic induction of the Glut1 promoter was also partially sensitive to inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway and was strongly inhibited by cotransfection with dominant-negative Ras. Thus, Ras activation and pathways downstream of Ras mediate induction of the Glut1 promoter during myocardial hypertrophy. (+info)
Negative regulation of myeloid cell proliferation and function by the SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase-1.
The SH2 domain containing tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 has been implicated in the regulation of a multiplicity of signaling pathways involved in hemopoietic cell growth, differentiation, and activation. A pivotal contribution of SHP-1 in the modulation of myeloid cell signaling cascades has been revealed by the demonstration that SHP-1 gene mutation is responsible for the overexpansion and inappropriate activation of myelomonocytic populations in motheaten mice. To investigate the role of SHP-1 in regulation of myeloid leukocytes, an HA epitope-tagged dominant negative (interfering) SHP-1 (SHP-1C453S) was expressed in the myelo-monocytic cell line U937 using the pcDNA3 vector. Overexpression of this protein in SHP-1C453S transfectants was demonstrated by Western blot analysis and by detection of decreased specific activity. Growth, proliferation, and IL-3-induced proliferative responses were substantially increased in the SHP-1C453S-overexpressing cells relative to those in control cells. The results of cell cycle analysis also revealed that the proportion of cells overexpressing SHP-1C453S in S phase was greater than that of control cells. The SHP-1C453S-expressing cells also displayed diminished rates of apoptosis as detected by flow cytometric analysis of propidium iodide-stained cells and terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated fluorescein-dUTP nick end-labeling assay. While motility and phagocytosis were not affected by SHP-1C453S overexpression, adhesion and the oxidative burst in response to PMA were enhanced in the SHP-1C453S compared with those in the vector alone transfectants. Taken together, these results suggest that SHP-1 exerts an important negative regulatory influence on cell proliferation and activation while promoting spontaneous cell death in myeloid cells. (+info)
Protein phosphatase 1 is involved in the dissociation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II from postsynaptic densities.
Autophosphorylation-dependent translocation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II) to postsynaptic densities (PSDs) from cytosol may be a physiologically important process during synaptic activation. We investigated a protein phosphatase responsible for dephosphorylation of the kinase. CaM kinase II was shown to be targeted to two sites using the gel overlay method in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) was identified to dephosphorylate CaM kinase II from its complex with PSDs using phosphatase inhibitors and activators, and purified phosphatases. The kinase was released from PSDs after its dephosphorylation by PP1. (+info)