N-terminal segments are the functional domains of CLN3-encoded battenin for protein interactions.
OBJECTIVE: Batten disease (BD), the juvenile form of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCLs), is pathological characterized by finding lysosomal storage of autofluorescent lipofuscins with unique ultrastructural profiles. The gene underlying BD is designated CLN3 and encodes a protein, Battenin, of unknown function that localizes in lysosomes and/or mitochondria. Previously, we hypothesized that Battenin associates with other membrane protein(s) to form a membrane complex. Dysfunction of this complex could result in the pathological changes of BD, and possibly in other NCLs. Two such membranous proteins, the slow and fast Battenin-interactive proteins (BIPs and BIPf) of unknown functions, have been identified. In this study, we have characterized the functional domains of Battenin that interact with both BIP proteins. METHODS: Protein-protein interactions with a yeast two-hybrid system were employed. A "deletion assay" was employed to localize the interactive segment(s). Different lengths of cDNA sequences lacking exon 1-5 were used to express CLN3-encoded proteins lacking N-terminal segments in the yeast two-hybrid system. N-terminal exons of CLN3 were deleted with PCR-cloning strategies. RESULTS: We eliminated the possibility of interacting domains from the exon 7-encoded region because both Battenin and mBattenin interact with the BIP proteins. We have shown that peptide sequences encoded by exons 2 and 4 of CLN3 gene include the functional domains by which Battenin interacts with the BIP proteins. CONCLUSION: Our studies provide evidence that the N-terminus of Battenin is the functional domain for these protein interactions. (+info)
Separation of anti-proliferation and anti-apoptotic functions of retinoblastoma protein through targeted mutations of its A/B domain.
BACKGROUND: The human retinoblastoma susceptibility gene encodes a nuclear phosphoprotein RB, which is a negative regulator of cell proliferation. The growth suppression function of RB requires an evolutionarily conserved A/B domain that contains two distinct peptide-binding pockets. At the A/B interface is a binding site for the C-terminal trans-activation domain of E2F. Within the B-domain is a binding site for proteins containing the LxCxE peptide motif. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Based on the crystal structure of the A/B domain, we have constructed an RB-K530A/N757F (KN) mutant to disrupt the E2F- and LxCxE-binding pockets. The RB-K530A (K) mutant is sufficient to inactivate the E2F-binding pocket, whereas the RB-N757F (N) mutant is sufficient to inactivate the LxCxE-binding pocket. Each single mutant inhibits cell proliferation, but the RB-KN double mutant is defective in growth suppression. Nevertheless, the RB-KN mutant is capable of reducing etoposide-induced apoptosis. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Previous studies have established that RB-dependent G1-arrest can confer resistance to DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Results from this study demonstrate that RB can also inhibit apoptosis independent of growth suppression. (+info)
Insights into the molecular evolution of the PDZ/LIM family and identification of a novel conserved protein motif.
The PDZ and LIM domain-containing protein family is encoded by a diverse group of genes whose phylogeny has currently not been analyzed. In mammals, ten genes are found that encode both a PDZ- and one or several LIM-domains. These genes are: ALP, RIL, Elfin (CLP36), Mystique, Enigma (LMP-1), Enigma homologue (ENH), ZASP (Cypher, Oracle), LMO7 and the two LIM domain kinases (LIMK1 and LIMK2). As conventional alignment and phylogenetic procedures of full-length sequences fell short of elucidating the evolutionary history of these genes, we started to analyze the PDZ and LIM domain sequences themselves. Using information from most sequenced eukaryotic lineages, our phylogenetic analysis is based on full-length cDNA-, EST-derived- and genomic- PDZ and LIM domain sequences of over 25 species, ranging from yeast to humans. Plant and protozoan homologs were not found. Our phylogenetic analysis identifies a number of domain duplication and rearrangement events, and shows a single convergent event during evolution of the PDZ/LIM family. Further, we describe the separation of the ALP and Enigma subfamilies in lower vertebrates and identify a novel consensus motif, which we call 'ALP-like motif' (AM). This motif is highly-conserved between ALP subfamily proteins of diverse organisms. We used here a combinatorial approach to define the relation of the PDZ and LIM domain encoding genes and to reconstruct their phylogeny. This analysis allowed us to classify the PDZ/LIM family and to suggest a meaningful model for the molecular evolution of the diverse gene architectures found in this multi-domain family. (+info)
Polyelectrostatic interactions of disordered ligands suggest a physical basis for ultrasensitivity.
Regulation of biological processes often involves phosphorylation of intrinsically disordered protein regions, thereby modulating protein interactions. Initiation of DNA replication in yeast requires elimination of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Sic1 via the SCF(Cdc4) ubiquitin ligase. Intriguingly, the substrate adapter subunit Cdc4 binds to Sic1 only after phosphorylation of a minimum of any six of the nine cyclin-dependent kinase sites on Sic1. To investigate the physical basis of this ultrasensitive interaction, we consider a mean-field statistical mechanical model for the electrostatic interactions between a single receptor site and a conformationally disordered polyvalent ligand. The formulation treats phosphorylation sites as negative contributions to the total charge of the ligand and addresses its interplay with the strength of the favorable ligand-receptor contact. Our model predicts a threshold number of phosphorylation sites for receptor-ligand binding, suggesting that ultrasensitivity in the Sic1-Cdc4 system may be driven at least in part by cumulative electrostatic interactions. This hypothesis is supported by experimental affinities of Cdc4 for Sic1 fragments with different total charges. Thus, polyelectrostatic interactions may provide a simple yet powerful framework for understanding the modulation of protein interactions by multiple phosphorylation sites in disordered protein regions. (+info)
Evolution of function in the "two dinucleotide binding domains" flavoproteins.
Structural and biochemical constraints force some segments of proteins to evolve more slowly than others, often allowing identification of conserved structural or sequence motifs that can be associated with substrate binding properties, chemical mechanisms, and molecular functions. We have assessed the functional and structural constraints imposed by cofactors on the evolution of new functions in a superfamily of flavoproteins characterized by two-dinucleotide binding domains, the "two dinucleotide binding domains" flavoproteins (tDBDF) superfamily. Although these enzymes catalyze many different types of oxidation/reduction reactions, each is initiated by a stereospecific hydride transfer reaction between two cofactors, a pyridine nucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Sequence and structural analysis of more than 1,600 members of the superfamily reveals new members and identifies details of the evolutionary connections among them. Our analysis shows that in all of the highly divergent families within the superfamily, these cofactors adopt a conserved configuration optimal for stereospecific hydride transfer that is stabilized by specific interactions with amino acids from several motifs distributed among both dinucleotide binding domains. The conservation of cofactor configuration in the active site restricts the pyridine nucleotide to interact with FAD from the re-side, limiting the flow of electrons from the re-side to the si-side. This directionality of electron flow constrains interactions with the different partner proteins of different families to occur on the same face of the cofactor binding domains. As a result, superimposing the structures of tDBDFs aligns not only these interacting proteins, but also their constituent electron acceptors, including heme and iron-sulfur clusters. Thus, not only are specific aspects of the cofactor-directed chemical mechanism conserved across the superfamily, the constraints they impose are manifested in the mode of protein-protein interactions. Overlaid on this foundation of conserved interactions, nature has conscripted different protein partners to serve as electron acceptors, thereby generating diversification of function across the superfamily. (+info)
Association of nucleophosmin negatively regulates CXCR4-mediated G protein activation and chemotaxis.
CXCR4, the primary receptor for CXCL12, plays a critical role in the development of hematopoietic, vascular, central nervous, and immune systems by mediating directional migration of precursor cells. This mechanism promotes homing of tumor cells to metastatic sites that secrete CXCL12, and CXCR4 expression is a negative prognostic factor in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). To elucidate mechanisms that regulate CXCR4 signaling, we used a proteomic approach to identify proteins physically associated with CXCR4. Analysis of CXCR4 immune complexes identified nucleophosmin (NPM), which was confirmed by reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation for NPM. Constitutively active CXCR4 variants bound higher levels of NPM than the wild-type receptor, which was reversed by T140, an inverse agonist. NPM binding to CXCR4 localized interactions to the C terminus and cytoplasmic loop (CL)-3, but not CL-1 or CL-2. Alanine scanning mutagenesis demonstrated that positively charged amino acids in CL-3 were critical for NPM binding. Recombinant NPM decreased GTP binding in membrane fractions after activation of CXCR4 by CXCL12. Suppression of NPM expression enhanced chemotactic responses to CXCL12, and, conversely, overexpression of a cytosolic NPM mutant reduced chemotaxis induced by CXCL12. This study provides evidence for a novel role for NPM as a negative regulator of CXCR4 signaling induced by CXCL12 that may be relevant to the biology of AML. (+info)
WW domains 2 and 3 of Rsp5p play overlapping roles in binding to the LPKY motif of Spt23p and Mga2p.
Rsp5p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a member of the C2-WW-HECT family of ubiquitin ligases and it interacts with targets via its WW domains. Spt23p and Mga2p are Rsp5p substrates and Rsp5p activates the OLE1 inducing functions of these membrane-localized transcription factors by ubiquitination. Although it is known that Rsp5p binds Mga2p and Spt23p via an imperfect WW domain-binding site (LPKY) that is located within the carboxy-terminal domain of the proteins, it remains unclear which WW domains mediate binding. We show that Rsp5p mutants harboring mutations in single WW domains are Spt23p/Mga2p binding and ubiquitination proficient. This is also the case for WW domains 1/2 and WW domains 1/3 mutants. However, disrupting WW domains 2 and 3 abrogates a physical and functional interaction with substrates in vitro and in cells. We also show that abrogation of WW domains 2 and 3 eliminates the activity of an Rsp5p dominant-negative mutant and an rsp5 WW domain 2/3 mutant is unable to rescue the proliferative defects of rsp5 Delta cells. Interestingly, while rsp5 Delta cells are able to grow on oleic acid containing YPD media, they as well as those transformed with the WW domain 2/3 mutant are unable to proliferate on oleic acid containing synthetic drop-out media. We conclude from these studies that WW domains 2 and 3 of Rsp5p play overlapping roles in binding to the LPKY site on Spt23p and Mga2p. Also, we propose that WW domains 2 and 3 perform yet to be defined essential function(s) outside of the OLE1 pathway when cells are grown in nutrient restrictive media. (+info)
Critical role of helix 4 of HIV-1 capsid C-terminal domain in interactions with human lysyl-tRNA synthetase.
Human tRNALys3 is used as the primer for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcription. HIV-1 Gag and GagPol, as well as host cell factor lysyl-tRNA synthetase (LysRS), are required for specific packaging of tRNALys into virions. Gag alone is sufficient for packaging of LysRS, and these two proteins have been shown to interact in vitro with an equilibrium binding constant of approximately 310 nM. The capsid (CA) domain of Gag binds to LysRS with a similar affinity as full-length Gag. In this work, we report further characterization of the interaction between HIV-1 CA and human LysRS using truncation constructs and point mutations in the putative interaction helices. Fluorescence anisotropy binding measurements reveal that a LysRS variant lacking the N-terminal 219 residues still displays high affinity binding to CA. The CA C-terminal domain (CTD) is also sufficient for binding to LysRS. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies using 15N-labeled CA-CTD reveal chemical shift perturbations of residues in and proximal to helix 4 of CA-CTD upon LysRS binding. A synthetic peptide that includes helix 4 binds to LysRS with high affinity, whereas peptides derived from the other three helical domains of CA-CTD do not. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis studies targeting residues in the helix 4 region support a direct interaction between this domain of CA-CTD and LysRS. The high resolution mapping studies reported here will facilitate future work aimed at disrupting the Gag-LysRS interaction, which represents a novel anti-viral strategy. (+info)