Identification of two transmembrane regions and a cytosolic domain of rat mitochondrial glycerophosphate acyltransferase.
The topography of rat glycerophosphate acyltransferase (GAT) in the transverse plane of the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) was investigated. Computer analysis of the amino acid (aa) sequence derived from rat mitochondrial GAT cDNA (GenBanktrade mark accession nos. and ) predicts the presence of two possible transmembrane domains (aa 473-493 and 574-594) separated by an 80-aa stretch (aa 494-573). To determine the actual orientation of the native protein, we prepared anti-peptide antibodies to three regions: one in between (aa 543-559) and the other two (aa 420-435 and 726-740) flanking the two putative transmembrane regions. Both immunoreaction and immunoprecipitation experiments employing intact and solubilized mitochondria indicate that regions on the N- and C-terminal sides of the transmembrane regions are sequestered on the inner surface of the MOM, while the region between the transmembrane domains is present on the cytosolic face of the MOM. Additionally, two green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion proteins consisting of full-length GAT fused to GFP at either the C terminus or inserted 115 amino acids from the N terminus were also constructed to determine the orientation of the N and C termini. COS-1 cells expressing these fusion proteins were fractionated to obtain mitochondria. Protease digestion of intact and solubilized COS-1 cell mitochondria revealed that the GFP domains of these fusion proteins are sequestered on the inner side of the MOM. The present findings indicate that GAT is a dual-spanning, transmembrane protein adopting an inverted "U" conformation in the transverse plane of the MOM, where the N and C termini are sequestered on the inner surface of the MOM, while aa 494-573 are exposed on the cytosolic surface of the MOM. (+info)
Interaction of the eIF4G initiation factor with the aphthovirus IRES is essential for internal translation initiation in vivo.
The strategies developed by internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements to recruit the translational machinery are poorly understood. In this study we show that protein-RNA interaction of the eIF4G translation initiation factor with sequences of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) IRES is a key determinant of internal translation initiation in living cells. Moreover, we have identified the nucleotides required for eIF4G-RNA functional interaction, using native proteins from FMDV-susceptible cell extracts. Substitutions in the conserved internal AA loop of the base of domain 4 led to strong impairment of both eIF4G-RNA interaction in vitro and IRES-dependent translation initiation in vivo. Conversely, substitutions in the vicinity of the internal AA loop that did not impair IRES activity retained their ability to interact with eIF4G. Direct UV-crosslinking as well as competition assays indicated that domains 1-2, 3, and 5 of the IRES did not contribute to this interaction. In agreement with this, binding to domain 4 alone was as efficient as to the full-length IRES. The C-terminal fragment of eIF4G, proteolytically processed by the FMDV Lb protease, was sufficient to interact with the IRES or to its domain 4 alone. Additionally, we show here that binding of the eIF4B initiation factor to the IRES required domain 5 sequences. Moreover, eIF4G-IRES interaction was detected in the absence of eIF4B-IRES binding, suggesting that both initiation factors interact with the 3' region of the IRES but use different residues. The strong correlation found between eIF4G-RNA interaction and IRES activity in transfected cells suggests that eIF4G acts as a linker to recruit the translational machinery in IRES-dependent initiation. (+info)
Search for the autoantibody immunodominant region on thyroid peroxidase: epitopic footprinting with a human monoclonal autoantibody locates a facet on the native antigen containing a highly conformational epitope.
Autoantibodies to thyroid peroxidase (TPO) are the hallmark of the humoral autoimmune response in human autoimmune thyroiditis (Hashimoto's thyroiditis). The majority of TPO autoantibodies in individual patients' sera interact with a restricted immunodominant region on TPO. Although this region can be mapped, previous studies have failed to localize its position on the TPO molecule. We, therefore, used a footprinting approach that can localize a highly conformational, discontinuous epitope on a very large molecule. Extensive biotinylation ( approximately 15 biotins/molecule protein) of lysine residues on the surface of purified, native TPO resulted in loss of multiple tryptic cleavage sites, as determined by analysis of tryptic polypeptide fragments on reverse-phase HPLC. TPO was then complexed with a monoclonal human autoantibody Fab (TR1.9) before biotinylation. After dissociation from TR1.9, TPO was recovered by gel filtration. A trypsin site, previously observed to be lost after TPO biotinylation, was restored when biotinylation was performed on the TPO-TR1.9 complex. The epitope-protected lysine (K) was present in a 30-aa TPO fragment that, by N-terminal sequencing, was found to be K713. Altered recognition by TR1.9 of a TPO-myeloperoxidase chimeric molecule involving this region supported the epitope protection data. In conclusion, we provide the first identification of an amino acid residue (K713) comprising part of an epitope within the TPO immunodominant region. This focal residue localizes the facet on the large, highly complex TPO molecule that contains the immunodominant region and provides the basis for rational guided mutagenesis studies to more fully characterize this region. (+info)
Mapping DNA-binding sites of HIV-1 integrase by protein footprinting.
The HIV-1 integrase protein catalyzes integration of the viral genome into host cell DNA. Whereas the structures of the three domains of integrase have been solved separately, both the structural organization of the full-length protein and its interaction with DNA remain unresolved. A protein footprinting approach was employed to investigate the accessibility of residues in the full-length soluble integrase mutant, INF(185K,C280S), to proteolytic attack in the absence and presence of DNA. The N-terminal and C-terminal domains were relatively more accessible to proteolytic attack than the core domain. The susceptibility to proteolytic attack was specifically affected by DNA at residues Lys34, in the N-terminal domain, Lys111, Lys136, Glu138, Lys156-Lys160, Lys185-Lys188, in the core domain, and Asp207, Lys 215, Glu246, Lys258 and Lys273 in the linker and C-terminal domain, suggesting that these regions are involved in, or shielded by, DNA binding. Lys34 is positioned in a putative dimerization domain, consistent with the notion that DNA stabilizes the dimeric state of integrase. (+info)
Characterization of the mouse islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein gene promoter by in situ footprinting: correlation with fusion gene expression in the islet-derived betaTC-3 and hamster insulinoma tumor cell lines.
Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) is a multicomponent system located in the endoplasmic reticulum comprising a catalytic subunit and transporters for glucose-6-phosphate, inorganic phosphate, and glucose. We have recently cloned a novel gene that encodes an islet-specific G6Pase catalytic subunit-related protein (IGRP) (Ebert et al., Diabetes 48:543-551, 1999). To begin to investigate the molecular basis for the islet-specific expression of the IGRP gene, a series of truncated IGRP-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) fusion genes were transiently transfected into the islet-derived mouse betaTC-3 and hamster insulinoma tumor cell lines. In both cell lines, basal fusion gene expression decreased upon progressive deletion of the IGRP promoter sequence between -306 and -66, indicating that multiple promoter regions are required for maximal IGRP-CAT expression. The ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction footprinting technique was then used to compare trans-acting factor binding to the IGRP promoter in situ in betaTC-3 cells, which express the endogenous IGRP gene, and adrenocortical Y1 cells, which do not. Multiple trans-acting factor binding sites were selectively identified in betaTC-3 cells that correlate with regions of the IGRP promoter identified as being required for basal IGRP-CAT fusion gene expression. The data suggest that hepatocyte nuclear factor 3 may be important for basal IGRP gene expression, as it is for glucagon, GLUT2, and Pdx-1 gene expression. In addition, binding sites for several trans-acting factors not previously associated with islet gene expression, as well as binding sites for potentially novel proteins, were identified. (+info)
HMG-D complexed to a bulge DNA: an NMR model.
An NMR model is presented for the structure of HMG-D, one of the Drosophila counterparts of mammalian HMG1/2 proteins, bound to a particular distorted DNA structure, a dA(2) DNA bulge. The complex is in fast to intermediate exchange on the NMR chemical shift time scale and suffers substantial linebroadening for the majority of interfacial resonances. This essentially precludes determination of a high-resolution structure for the interface based on NMR data alone. However, by introducing a small number of additional constraints based on chemical shift and linewidth footprinting combined with analogies to known structures, an ensemble of model structures was generated using a computational strategy equivalent to that for a conventional NMR structure determination. We find that the base pair adjacent to the dA(2) bulge is not formed and that the protein recognizes this feature in forming the complex; intermolecular NOE enhancements are observed from the sidechain of Thr 33 to all four nucleotides of the DNA sequence step adjacent to the bulge. Our results form the first experimental demonstration that when binding to deformed DNA, non-sequence-specific HMG proteins recognize the junction between duplex and nonduplex DNA. Similarities and differences of the present structural model relative to other HMG-DNA complex structures are discussed. (+info)
Peptide bis-intercalator binds DNA via threading mode with sequence specific contacts in the major groove.
BACKGROUND: We previously described a general class of DNA polyintercalators in which 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic diimide (NDI) intercalating units are connected via peptide linkers, resulting in the first known tetrakis- and octakis-intercalators. We showed further that changes in the composition of the peptide tether result in novel DNA binding site specificities. We now examine in detail the DNA binding mode and sequence specific recognition of Compound 1, an NDI bis-intercalator containing the peptide linker gly-gly-gly-lys. RESULTS: 1H-NMR structural studies of Compound 1 bound to d(CGGTACCG)(2) confirmed a threading mode of intercalation, with four base pairs between the diimide units. The NMR data, combined with DNAse I footprinting of several analogs, suggest that specificity depends on a combination of steric and electrostatic contacts by the peptide linker in the floor of the major groove. CONCLUSIONS: In view of the modular nature and facile synthesis of our NDI-based polyintercalators, such structural knowledge can be used to improve or alter the specificity of the compounds and design longer polyintercalators that recognize correspondingly longer DNA sequences with alternating access to both DNA grooves. (+info)
Quantitative effects on gene silencing by allelic variation at a tetranucleotide microsatellite.
Microsatellites are common repeated sequences, which are useful as genetic markers and lack any clearly established function. In a previous study we suggested that an intronic polymorphic TCAT repeat in the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene, the microsatellite HUMTH01, may regulate transcription. The TH gene encodes the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamines, and the microsatellite HUMTH01 has been used in genetic studies of neuropsychiatric and cardiovascular diseases, in which disturbances of catecholaminergic neurotransmission have been implicated. HUMTH01 alleles associated with these diseases act as transcriptional enhancers when linked to a minimal promoter and are recognized by specific nuclear factors. Here we show that allelic variations of HUMTH01 commonly found in humans have a quantitative silencing effect on TH gene expression. Two specific proteins, ZNF191, a zinc finger protein, and HBP1, an HMG box transcription factor, which bind the TCAT motif, were then cloned. Finally, allelic variations of HUMTH01 correlate with quantitative and qualitative changes in the binding by ZNF191. Thus, this repeated sequence may contribute to the control of expression of quantitative genetic traits. As the HUMTH01 core motif is ubiquitous in the genome, this phenomenon may be relevant to the quantitative expression of many genes in addition to TH. (+info)