Gastrin-releasing peptide receptors in the human prostate: relation to neoplastic transformation.
Bombesin-like peptides such as gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) have been shown to play a role in cancer as autocrine growth factors that stimulate tumor growth through specific receptors. To search for potential clinical indications for GRP analogues, it is important to identify human tumor types expressing sufficient amounts of the respective receptors. In the present study, we have evaluated the expression of GRP receptors in human nonneoplastic and neoplastic prostate tissues using in vitro receptor autoradiography on tissue sections with 125I-Tyr4-bombesin as radio-ligand. GRP receptors were detected, often in high density, in 30 of 30 invasive prostatic carcinomas and also in 26 of 26 cases of prostatic intraepithelial proliferative lesions, corresponding mostly to prostatic intraepithelial neoplasias. Well-differentiated carcinomas had a higher receptor density than poorly differentiated ones. Bone metastases of androgen-independent prostate cancers were GRP receptor-positive in 4 of 7 cases. Conversely, GRP receptors were identified in only a few hyperplastic prostates and were localized in very low density in glandular tissue and, focally, in some stromal tissue. In all of the cases, the receptors corresponded to the GRP receptor subtype of bombesin receptors, having high affinity for GRP and bombesin and lower affinity for neuromedin B. These data demonstrate a massive GRP receptor overexpression in prostate tissues that are neoplastically transformed or, like prostatic intraepithelial neoplasias, are in the process of malignant transformation. GRP receptors may be markers for early molecular events in prostate carcinogenesis and useful in differentiating prostate hyperplasia from prostate neoplasia Such data may not only be of biological significance but may also provide a molecular basis for potential clinical applications such as GRP-receptor scintigraphy for early tumor diagnosis, radiotherapy with radiolabeled bombesin-like peptide analogues, and chemotherapy with cytotoxic bombesin analogues. (+info)
Cloning and characterization of androgen receptor coactivator, ARA55, in human prostate.
Androgen receptor (AR) is a hormone-activated transcriptional factor that can bind to androgen response elements and that regulates the transcription of target genes via a mechanism that presumably involves cofactors. We report here the cloning of a novel AR coactivator ARA55 using a yeast two-hybrid system. ARA55 consists of 444 amino acids with the predicted molecular mass of 55 kDa and its sequence shows very high homology to mouse hic5, a TGF-beta1-inducible gene. Yeast and mammalian two-hybrid systems and co-immunoprecipitation assays all prove ARA55 can bind to AR in a ligand-dependent manner. Transient transfection assay in prostate cancer DU145 cells further demonstrates that ARA55 can enhance AR transcriptional activity in the presence of 1 nM dihydrotestosterone or its antagonists such as 100 nM 17beta-estradiol or 1 microM hydroxyflutamide. Our data also suggest the C-terminal half of ARA55, which includes three LIM motifs, is sufficient to interact with AR. Northern blot and polymerase chain reaction quantitation showed ARA55 can be expressed differently in normal prostate and prostate tumor cells. Together, our data suggests that ARA55 may play very important roles in the progression of prostate cancer by the modulation of AR transactivation. (+info)
Molecular cloning and characterization of prostase, an androgen-regulated serine protease with prostate-restricted expression.
The identification of genes with selective expression in specific organs or cell types provides an entry point for understanding biological processes that occur uniquely within a particular tissue. Using a subtraction approach designed to identify genes preferentially expressed in specific tissues, we have identified prostase, a human serine protease with prostate-restricted expression. The prostase cDNA encodes a putative 254-aa polypeptide with a conserved serine protease catalytic triad and an amino-terminal pre-propeptide sequence, indicating a potential secretory function. The genomic sequence comprises five exons and four introns and contains multiple copies of a chromosome 19q-specific minisatellite repeat. Northern analysis indicates that prostase mRNA is expressed in hormonally responsive normal and neoplastic prostate epithelial tissues, but not in prostate stromal constituents. Prostase shares 35% amino acid identity with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and 78% identity with the porcine enamel matrix serine proteinase 1, an enzyme involved in enamel matrix degradation and with a putative role in the disruption of intercellular junctions. Radiation-hybrid-panel mapping localized prostase to chromosome 19q13, a region containing several other serine proteases, including protease M, pancreatic/renal kallikrein hK1, and the prostate-specific kallikreins hK2 and hK3 (PSA). The sequence homology between prostase and other well-characterized serine proteases suggests several potential functional roles for the prostase protein that include the degradation of extracellular matrix and the activation of PSA and other proteases. (+info)
Delivery of adenoviral vectors to the prostate for gene therapy.
Prostate cancer has become the most frequently occurring cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men. One novel approach to combat prostate cancer is gene therapy. A replication-deficient recombinant adenoviral vector (AdRSVlacZ) expressing bacterial beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) (lacZ) under the control of the Rous sarcoma virus promoter was used to determine which delivery route was best for the transduction of adenoviral vectors to the prostate. Using a canine model, adenoviral vectors were administered by intravenous, intra-arterial, and intraprostatic (i.p.) injections. After injections, the expression of the lacZ gene was measured in canine prostates as well as in various other organs to determine the distribution of the disseminated adenoviral vector by (a) the percentage of cells expressing lacZ in situ (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl beta-D-galactoside staining), (b) beta-gal enzymatic activity (colorimetric beta-gal assay), and (c) polymerase chain reaction of genomic DNA using primers specific for the adenoviral genome. An i.p. injection of the adenoviral vector resulted in a greater transduction rate and expression level of lacZ in the prostate than either intravenous or intra-arterial (inferior vesical/prostatic artery) injections. Thus, an i.p. (or intratumoral) injection seems to be the best route to treat local regional prostate cancer by viral-based gene therapy. (+info)
Prolactin receptor expression in the developing human prostate and in hyperplastic, dysplastic, and neoplastic lesions.
In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were used to localize and compare the expression of the long form of the human prolactin receptor in fetal, prepubertal, and adult prostate. Results were then compared with hyperplastic, dysplastic, and neoplastic lesions. Both receptor message and protein were predominately localized in epithelial cells of the fetal, neonatal, prepubertal, and normal adult prostate. In hyperplastic lesions the expression of the receptor was unchanged with respect to normal epithelial cells. Irrespective of grade, markedly enhanced expression of the receptor was evident in dysplastic lesions. In lower Gleason grade carcinomas the intensity of receptor signal at the message and protein levels approximated that found in normal prostatic epithelium. However, in foci within higher grade cancers, receptor expression appeared diminished. Results from our study suggest that prolactin action plays a role in the development and maintenance of the human prostate and may also participate in early neoplastic transformation of the gland. Diminution of receptor expression in high grade neoplasms could reflect the emergence of a population of cells that are no longer responsive to the peptide hormone. (+info)
COUP-TF upregulates NGFI-A gene expression through an Sp1 binding site.
The formation of various tissues requires close communication between two groups of cells, epithelial and mesenchymal cells. COUP-TFs are transcription factors which have been shown to have functions in embryonic development. COUP-TFI is expressed mainly in the nervous system, and its targeted deletion leads to defects in the central and peripheral nervous systems. COUP-TFII is highly expressed in the mesenchymal component of the developing organs. A null mutation of COUP-TFII results in the malformation of the heart and blood vessels. From their expression pattern, we proposed that COUP-TFs regulate paracrine signals important for mesenchymal cell-epithelial cell interactions. In order to identify genes regulated by COUP-TF in this process, a rat urogenital mesenchymal cell line was stably transfected with a COUP-TFI expression vector. We found that NGFI-A, a gene with important functions in brain, organ, and vasculature development, has elevated mRNA and protein levels upon overexpression of COUP-TFI in these cells. A study of the promoter region of this gene identified a COUP-TF-responsive element between positions -64 and -46. Surprisingly, this region includes binding sites for members of the Sp1 family of transcription factors but no COUP-TF binding site. Mutations that abolish the Sp1 binding activity also impair the transactivation of the NGFI-A promoter by COUP-TF. Two regions of the COUP-TF molecule are shown to be important for NGFI-A activation: the DNA binding domain and the extreme C terminus of the putative ligand binding domain. The C-terminal region is likely to be important for interaction with coactivators. In fact, the coactivators p300 and steroid receptor activator 1 can enhance the transactivation of the NGFI-A promoter induced by COUP-TFI. Finally, we demonstrated that COUP-TF can directly interact with Sp1. Taken together, these results suggest that NGFI-A is a target gene for COUP-TFs and that the Sp1 family of transcription factors mediates its regulation by COUP-TFs. (+info)
Cloning and characterization of human prostate coactivator ARA54, a novel protein that associates with the androgen receptor.
Androgen receptor (AR) is a member of the steroid receptor superfamily that may require coactivators for proper or maximal transactivation. Using a yeast two-hybrid screening followed by mammalian cell analyses, we identified a novel ligand-dependent AR-associated protein, ARA54, which consists of 474 amino acids with a molecular mass of 54 kDa. We demonstrated that ARA54 might function as a preferential coactivator for AR-mediated transactivation in human prostate cancer DU145 cells. Interestingly, our data also showed that ARA54 could significantly enhance the transcriptional activity of LNCaP mutant AR (ARt877a) but not wild type AR or another mutant AR (ARe708k) in the presence of 10 nM 17beta-estradiol or 1 microM hydroxyflutamide. These results imply that both ARA54 and the positions of the AR mutation (877 versus 708) might contribute to the specificity of AR-mediated transactivation. Our findings further demonstrated that the C-terminal domain of ARA54 can serve as a dominant negative inhibitor and exogenous full-length ARA54 can reverse this squelching effect on AR transcriptional activity. Co-expression of ARA54 with other AR coactivators, such as ARA70 or SRC-1, showed additive stimulation of AR-mediated transactivation, which indicates that these cofactors may function individually as AR coactivators to induce AR target gene expression. Through our findings, we have identified and characterized a novel AR coactivator, ARA54, which may play an important role in the AR signaling pathway in human prostate. (+info)
The relationship between adrogen receptors and the hormonally controlled responses of rat ventral prostate.
1. The administration of dihydrotestosterone to rats orchidectomized 7 days previously stimulated the synthesis of nuclear receptor in prostatic cells several hours in advance of DNA synthesis and mitosis. 2. The synthesis of nuclear receptor is tightly coupled to cell proliferation; consequently, in resting cells, there is no further net synthesis of nuclear receptor above the maximum of approx. 8000 molecules/cell. 3. After orchidectomy a rapid decline in the concentration of free androgen in the nuceus and a slower decline in the concentration of nuclear receptor are observed. 4. Owing to the apparent scarcity of receptor-inactivating factors in the nucleus, and the inverse relationship between amounts of nuclear and cytoplasmic receptors, it is concluded that the nuclear receptor is discharged into the cytoplasm after orchidectomy. 5. The formation of the cytoplasmic receptor is an early event preceding the onset of cellular autolysis. 6. Regressing prostate develops the capacity to eliminate cytoplasmic receptor, and this capacity is retained by the regenerating prostate for at least 14 days. 7. The synthesis of nuclear receptor in early G1 phase may control the entry of cells into the cell cycle and the prolonged retention of receptor in the nucleus may prevent the activation of autophagic processes. (+info)