Amino acid residues in the transmembrane domain of the type 1 sigma receptor critical for ligand binding.
The type 1 sigma receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes showed binding abilities for the sigma-1 ligands, [3H](+)pentazocine and [3H]NE-100, with similar kinetic properties as observed in native tissue membranes. Amino acid substitutions (Ser99Ala, Tyr103Phe and di-Leu105,106di-Ala) in the transmembrane domain did not alter the expression levels of the type 1 sigma receptor as determined by immunoblot analysis using an anti-type 1 sigma receptor antiserum. By contrast, ligand binding was significantly suppressed by the substitutions. These findings provide evidence that the transmembrane domain of the type 1 sigma receptor plays a critical role in ligand binding of this receptor. (+info)
A-Current down-modulated by sigma receptor in frog pituitary melanotrope cells through a G protein-dependent pathway.
Gramicidin perforated patch-clamp recordings were used to study the effects of two sigma 1 receptor ligands, (+)-N-cyclopropylmethyl-N-methyl-1, 4-diphenyl-1-ethyl-but-3-en-1-ylamine hydrochloride (JO 1784) and (+)-pentazocine, on the transient outward potassium current (IA) in cultured frog melanotrope cells. (+)-Pentazocine reversibly decreased the current amplitude in a dose-dependent manner. The effects of (+)-pentazocine were mimicked by JO 1784 and were markedly reduced by the sigma 1 receptor antagonist, N, N-dipropyl-2-[4-methoxy-3-2(2-phenylethoxy)phenyl]-ethylamine monohydrochloride (NE 100). Inactivation rate of IA was best fitted with a double exponential function, yielding time constants of 23.7 and 112.5 ms. (+)-Pentazocine (20 microM) accelerated the current decay, decreasing the time constants to 10.7 and 59 ms, respectively. Current-voltage experiments revealed that (+)-pentazocine (20 microM) did neither modify the open-state I/V curves nor the voltage dependence of IA. However, (+)-pentazocine (20 microM) shifted the steady-state inactivation curve toward more negative potentials and increased the time constant of the time-dependent removal of inactivation. In whole-cell experiments, internal dialysis of guanosine-5'-O-(3-thiophosphate) (100 microM) irreversibly prolonged the response to (+)-pentazocine. In addition, cholera toxin pretreatment (1 microgram. ml-1; 12 h) suppressed the inhibition of IA by (+)-pentazocine (20 microM). It is concluded that in frog melanotrope cells, a cholera toxin-sensitive, G protein-dependent inhibition of IA through a sigma 1 receptor activation, at least partially, underlies the excitatory effect of sigma ligands. (+info)
Electrophysiological effects of mexiletine in man.
The electrophysiological effects of intravenous mexiletine in a dose of 200 to 250 mg given over 5 minutes, followed by continuous infusion of 60 to 90 mg per hour, were studied in 5 patients with normal conduction and in 20 patients with a variety of disturbances of impulse formation and conduction, by means of His bundle electrography, atrial pacing, and the extrastimulus method. In all but 2 patients the plasma level was above the lower therapeutic limit. Mexiletine had no consistent effects on sinus frequency and atrial refractoriness. The sinoatrial recovery time changed inconsistently in both directions; however, of the 5 patients in whom an increase was evident, 3 had sinus node dysfunction. In most patients mexiletine increased the AV nodal conduction time at paced atrial rates and shifted the Wenckebach point to a lower atrial rate. The effective refractory period of the AV node was not consistently influenced, while the functional refractory period increased in 12 out of 14 patients. The HV intervals increased by a mean of 11 ms in 8 patients and were unchanged in 17. Both the relative and effective refractory period of the His-Purkinje system increased after mexiletine. Non-cardiac side effects occurred in 7 out of 25 patients, and cardiac side effects, including one serious, in 2. The results indicate that mexiletine shares some electrophysiological properties with procainamide and quinidine, when given to patients with conduction defects, and that the drug should not be used in patients with pre-existing impairment of impulse formation or conduction. It has additional effects on AV nodal conduction which may be of value in the treatment of re-entrant tachycardias involving the AV node. (+info)
GABA(B) receptor-mediated stimulation of adenylyl cyclase activity in membranes of rat olfactory bulb.
Previous studies have shown that GABA(B) receptors facilitate cyclic AMP formation in brain slices likely through an indirect mechanism involving intracellular second messengers. In the present study, we have investigated whether a positive coupling of GABA(B) receptors to adenylyl cyclase could be detected in a cell-free preparation of rat olfactory bulb, a brain region where other Gi/Go-coupled neurotransmitter receptors have been found to stimulate the cyclase activity. The GABA(B) receptor agonist (-)-baclofen significantly increased basal adenylyl cyclase activity in membranes of the granule cell and external plexiform layers, but not in the olfactory nerve-glomerular layer. The adenylyl cyclase stimulation was therefore examined in granule cell layer membranes. The (-)-baclofen stimulation (pD2=4.53) was mimicked by 3-aminopropylphosphinic acid (pD2=4.60) and GABA (pD2=3.56), but not by (+)-baclofen, 3-aminopropylphosphonic acid, muscimol and isoguvacine. The stimulatory effect was counteracted by the GABA(B) receptor antagonists CGP 35348 (pA2=4.31), CGP 55845 A (pA2=7.0) and 2-hydroxysaclofen (pKi=4.22). Phaclofen (1 mM) was inactive. The (-)-baclofen stimulation was not affected by quinacrine, indomethacin, nordihydroguaiaretic acid and staurosporine, but was completely prevented by pertussis toxin and significantly reduced by the alpha subunit of transducin, a betagamma scavenger. The betagamma subunits of transducin stimulated the cyclase activity and this effect was not additive with that produced by (-)-baclofen. In the external plexiform and granule cell layers, but not in the olfactory nerve-glomerular layer, (-)-baclofen enhanced the adenylyl cyclase stimulation elicited by the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) 38. Conversely, the adenylyl cyclase activity stimulated by either forskolin or Ca2+/calmodulin-(Ca2+/CaM) was inhibited by (-)-baclofen in all the olfactory bulb layers examined. These data demonstrate that in specific layers of rat olfactory bulb activation of GABA(B) receptors enhances basal and neurotransmitter-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activities by a mechanism involving betagamma subunits of Gi/Go. This positive coupling is associated with a widespread inhibitory effect on forskolin- and Ca2+/CaM-stimulated cyclic AMP formation. (+info)
Effects of alverine citrate on cat intestinal mechanoreceptor responses to chemical and mechanical stimuli.
BACKGROUND: Alverine citrate is commonly used in the treatment of painful affections of the colon. AIM: To determine whether alverine citrate acts on the vagal sensory endings. METHODS: Unitary recordings were performed at the level of the vagal fibres in the nodose ganglion of anaesthetized cats using extracellular glass microelectrodes, and the patterns of response to chemical and mechanical stimuli applied to identified vagal intestinal mechanoreceptors were studied. RESULTS: The intestinal mechanoreceptors located at the endings of type C vagal fibres responded mainly to mechanical stimuli (distension and contraction), but also responded to chemical substances (cholecystokinin and substance P). The most conspicuous effect of alverine (2 mg/kg) was that it significantly inhibited the pattern of vagal activity produced in response to either cholecystokinin (5-10 microg/kg), substance P (5-10 microg/kg) or phenylbiguanide (5-10 microg/kg), a 5-HT3 receptor agonist. On the other hand, the unitary vagal response to the mechanical distension was slightly enhanced by alverine, as was any spontaneous activity present. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the present data, alverine citrate can be said to decrease the sensitivity of the intestinal mechanoreceptors, which is consistent with its previously established anti-spasmodic effects. (+info)
Pharmacokinetic profile of alniditan nasal spray during and outside migraine attacks.
AIMS: To compare the pharmacokinetic profile of intranasal alniditan during and outside migraine attacks, and to investigate the relationship between initial rise of alniditan plasma concentration, and headache improvement. METHODS: Twenty-seven migraine patients (age: 18-65 years) were randomized to receive alniditan 2 mg or 4 mg, and investigated both during and outside a migraine attack. Maximal plasma concentrations (Cmax), time to Cmax (tmax), and the area under the curve over 2 h (AUC(0,2 h)), were calculated from the individual plasma concentration-time profile, obtained from 10 blood samples in each patient, during each of the two administrations. RESULTS: Alniditan was rapidly absorbed into the systemic circulation (tmax=11 min). All investigated pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax, tmax, AUC(0,2 h)) were similar during and outside migraine attacks, both in the 2 mg (n = 13) and the 4 mg group (n = 14). In the 4 mg group, during attacks, mean plasma alniditan concentration at 5 min after administration (Ct=5) in responders (21+/-16 ng ml(-1); n=10) was significantly higher than the Ct=5 in nonresponders (3+/-3 ng ml(-1); P=0.01; n=4). However, the Cmax and AUC(0,2 h) in responders (33+/-18 ng ml(-1) and 12+/-6 ng ml(-1) h) were also significantly higher than the Cmax and AUC(0,2 h) in nonresponders (13+/-9 ng ml(-1); P=0.048 and 5+/-3 ng ml(-1) h; P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Absorption of alniditan nasal spray was not affected by migraine attacks, although 95% confidence intervals were wide. Early rise of plasma concentrations and the amount of drug in the circulation were related to headache improvement in the higher dose group. (+info)
In this study, we examined the presence of sigma1 and sigma2 sites in the rabbit iris-ciliary body by receptor binding and investigated their effects on intraocular pressure (IOP) in albino rabbits. The iris-ciliary body has binding sites for the sigma1-site agonist [3H](+)-pentazocine (Kd = 4.6 nM; Bmax = 212 fmol/mg protein) and sigma2 sites labeled with [3H]1,3-di-o-tolylguanidine (DTG) (Kd = 8. 2 nM; Bmax = 1120 fmol/mg protein). In competition binding studies, (+)-pentazocine and the sigma antagonist NE-100 displayed high affinity for sigma1 sites (Ki = 2.1 and 2.4 nM, respectively), whereas (+)-N-allylnormetazocine (NANM) was less potent (Ki = 178 nM). Unilateral topical (+)-pentazocine (0.01-0.1%) caused a significant dose-related reduction of IOP in ocular normotensive rabbits and in the alpha-chymotrypsin model of ocular hypertension. (+)-NANM was less potent than (+)-pentazocine. Neither compound altered the IOP of the contralateral eye, and their hypotensive activity was blocked by NE-100 that, by itself, had no effect on IOP. (-)-Pentazocine, (-)-NANM, and DTG had no effect on IOP. DTG prevented the hypotensive effect of (+)-pentazocine, suggesting that it acts as a sigma1-site antagonist. sigma-Site ligands did not affect pupil diameter or cause ocular inflammation. Topical [3H](+)-pentazocine reaches the intraocular tissues within 30 min, and its uptake in the iris-ciliary body and retina was significantly reduced by topical pretreatment with NE-100, as expected for a receptor-specific agent. Reverse-phase HPLC confirmed the presence of intact (+)-pentazocine in iris-ciliary body homogenates. sigma1-Site agonists may offer a novel class of agents potentially effective in the control of ocular hypertension. (+info)
Humanization of mouse 5-hydroxytryptamine1B receptor gene by homologous recombination: in vitro and in vivo characterization.
We replaced the coding region of the murine 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1B receptor by the human 5-HT1B receptor using homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells and generated and characterized homozygous transgenic mice that express only the human (h) 5-HT1B receptor. The distribution patterns of h5-HT1B and murine (m) 5-HT1B receptor mRNA and binding sites in brain sections of transgenic and wild-type mice were identical as measured by in situ hybridization histochemistry and radioligand receptor autoradiography. When measured in parallel under identical conditions, the h5-HT1B receptor expressed in mouse brain had the same pharmacological characteristics as that in human brain. Stimulation by 5-HT1B agonists of [35S]guanosine-5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate binding in brain sections demonstrated the functional coupling of the h5-HT1B receptor to G proteins in mouse brain. In tissue slices from various brain regions, electrically stimulated [3H]5-HT release was not modified by 5-HT1B agonists in tissue from either transgenic and wild-type mice; a 5-HT1B antagonist enhanced electrically stimulated [3H]5-HT release in wild-type mouse brain, but was ineffective in the transgenics. The centrally active 5-HT1A/5-HT1B agonist RU24969 induced hypothermia but did not increase locomotor activity in the transgenic mice. The ineffectiveness of RU24969 in the transgenic mice could be due to the lower affinity of the compound for the h5-HT1B receptor compared with the m5-HT1B receptor. The present study demonstrates a complete replacement of the mouse receptor by its human receptor homolog and a functional coupling to G proteins. However, modulation of [3H]5-HT release could not be shown. Furthermore, behavioral effects were not clearly observed, which may be due to a lack of appropriate tools. (+info)