Overexpression of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1) in human heavy metal-selected tumor cells.
Cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the resistance to cytotoxic heavy metals remain largely to be characterized in mammalian cells. To this end, we have analyzed a metal-resistant variant of the human lung cancer GLC4 cell line that we have selected by a step-wise procedure in potassium antimony tartrate. Antimony-selected cells, termed GLC4/Sb30 cells, poorly accumulated antimony through an enhanced cellular efflux of metal, thus suggesting up-regulation of a membrane export system in these cells. Indeed, GLC4/Sb30 cells were found to display a functional overexpression of the multidrug resistance-associated protein MRP1, a drug export pump, as demonstrated by Western blotting, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and calcein accumulation assays. Moreover, MK571, a potent inhibitor of MRP1 activity, was found to markedly down-modulate resistance of GLC4/Sb30 cells to antimony and to decrease cellular export of the metal. Taken together, our data support the conclusion that overexpression of functional MRP1 likely represents one major mechanism by which human cells can escape the cytotoxic effects of heavy metals. (+info)
Role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the Ca2+-induced decline of transmitter release at K+-depolarized motor neuron terminals.
The present study tested whether a Ca2+-induced disruption of mitochondrial function was responsible for the decline in miniature endplate current (MEPC) frequency that occurs with nerve-muscle preparations maintained in a 35 mM potassium propionate (35 mM KP) solution containing elevated calcium. When the 35 mM KP contained control Ca2+ (1 mM), the MEPC frequency increased and remained elevated for many hours, and the mitochondria within twitch motor neuron terminals were similar in appearance to those in unstimulated terminals. All nerve terminals accumulated FM1-43 when the dye was present for the final 6 min of a 300-min exposure to 35 mM KP with control Ca2+. In contrast, when Ca2+ was increased to 3.6 mM in the 35 mM KP solution, the MEPC frequency initially reached frequencies >350 s-1 but then gradually fell approaching frequencies <50 s-1. A progressive swelling and eventual distortion of mitochondria within the twitch motor neuron terminals occurred during prolonged exposure to 35 mM KP with elevated Ca2+. After approximately 300 min in 35 mM KP with elevated Ca2+, only 58% of the twitch terminals accumulated FM1-43. The decline in MEPC frequency in 35 mM KP with elevated Ca2+ was less when 15 mM glucose was present or when preparations were pretreated with 10 microM oligomycin and then bathed in the 35 mM KP with glucose. When glucose was present, with or without oligomycin pretreatment, a greater percentage of twitch terminals accumulated FM1-43. However, the mitochondria in these preparations were still greatly swollen and distorted. We propose that prolonged depolarization of twitch motor neuron terminals by 35 mM KP with elevated Ca2+ produced a Ca2+-induced decrease in mitochondrial ATP production. Under these conditions, the cytosolic ATP/ADP ratio was decreased thereby compromising both transmitter release and refilling of recycled synaptic vesicles. The addition of glucose stimulated glycolysis which contributed to the maintenance of required ATP levels. (+info)
RSR13, an allosteric effector of haemoglobin, and carbogen radiosensitize FSAII and SCCVII tumours in C3H mice.
Pre-clinical evaluation has demonstrated that 2-[4-(((3,5-dimethylanilino)carbonyl)methyl)phenoxy]-2-methylpropi onic acid (RSR13) acts as an allosteric effector of haemoglobin (Hb). RSR13 binding to Hb results in decreased haemoglobin-oxygen (Hb-O2) affinity, improved tumour oxygenation, and enhanced radiation-induced cell killing in several experimental tumour systems. In the present work, ex vivo clonogenic survival analyses are applied in two murine tumour systems to characterize the relationship between the magnitude of decrease in Hb-O2 affinity and radiosensitization, the influence of inspired pO2 upon this effect, and the efficacy of combining RSR13 and radiation during a course of repeated radiation exposures. For FSaII tumours in C3H mice breathing air, 100 mg kg(-1) RSR13 administered intraperitoneally produced an enhancement ratio (ER) of 1.3, but there was marked desensitization at a RSR13 dose of 300 mg kg(-1) (ER 0.6). The most likely reason for the increased radioresistance was insufficient oxygen loading of Hb in the pulmonary circulation due to reduced haemoglobin-oxygen affinity because carbogen breathing combined with 300 mg kg(-1) RSR13 reversed the effect and produced an ER of 1.8. In SCCVII tumours in C3H mice irradiated with eight fractions of 2.5 Gy over 4 days, the surviving fraction was reduced to 58-67% of control values when RSR13 was combined with radiation on days 1 and 2, days 3 and 4, or days 1-4. These results confirm that combining RSR13 and irradiation within a fractionated course of clinically relevant low-dose exposures provides significant radiosensitization. Additional preclinical experimentation is needed to define better the optimum dose-scheduling conditions for clinical applications. (+info)
Preservation of canine myocardial high-energy phosphates during low-flow ischemia with modification of hemoglobin-oxygen affinity.
Conventional approaches for the treatment of myocardial ischemia increase coronary blood flow or reduce myocardial demand. To determine whether a rightward shift in the hemoglobin-oxygen saturation curve would reduce the metabolic and contractile effects of a myocardial oxygen-supply imbalance, we studied the impact of a potent synthetic allosteric modifier of hemoglobin-oxygen affinity, a 2-[4-[[(3,5-disubstituted anilino)carbonyl]methyl] phenoxy] -2-methylproprionic acid derivative (RSR13), during low-flow ischemia. Changes in myocardial high-energy phosphate levels and pH were studied by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in 12 open-chest dogs randomized to receive RSR13 or vehicle control during a reversible reduction of left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery blood flow. Changes in cardiac metabolites and regional ventricular function studied by pressure segment-length relations were also investigated in additional animals before and after RSR13 administration during low-flow LAD ischemia. The intravenous administration of RSR13 before ischemia resulted in a substantial increase in the mean hemoglobin p50 and attenuated the decline in cardiac creatine phosphate/adenosine triphosphate (PCr/ATP), percent PCr, and pH during ischemia without a change in regional myocardial blood flow, heart rate, or systolic blood pressure. RSR13 given after the onset of low-flow ischemia also improved cardiac PCr/ATP ratios and regional function as measured by fractional shortening and regional work. Thus, synthetic allosteric reduction in hemoglobin-oxygen affinity may be a new and important therapeutic strategy to ameliorate the metabolic and functional consequences of cardiac ischemia. (+info)
Inhibition of protein denaturation by fatty acids, bile salts and other natural substances: a new hypothesis for the mechanism of action of fish oil in rheumatic diseases.
Natural hydrophobic substances like bile salts (cholate, deoxycholate, chenodeoxycholate, lithocholate and their conjugates with glycine and taurine), fatty acids (caprylic, capric, lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid) were much more active (EC50 approximately 10(-4)-10(-5) M) than selected amino acids (EC50 > 10(-2) M) and inorganic salts (EC50 approximately 10(-1) M) in inhibiting heat-induced denaturation of human serum albumin in vitro. Fish oil, rich in n-3-polyunsaturated acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, administered p.o. (1 ml/kg) in the rat, protected ex vivo (after 2 hr) serum against heat-induced denaturation more than bendazac, a known antidenaturant drug. Thus, we speculated that the antidenaturant activity of fish oil may be partly (in addition to the known effect on endogenous eicosanoid composition) responsible for its beneficial effects in rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic conditions. In this connection, it is of note that the in vitro antidenaturant activity of fish oil fatty acids was higher than that of known antidenaturant drugs such as bendazac and bindarit and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like phenylbutazone and indomethacin which could exert beneficial effects in chronic inflammatory conditions by stabilizing endogenous proteins. (+info)
Microbial oxidation and assimilation of propylene.
Hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms in our culture collection oxidized propylene but could not utilize it as the sole source of carbon and energy. When propane-grown cells of Mycobacterium convulutum were placed on propylene, acrylate, the terminally oxidized, three-carbon unsaturated acid, accumulated. A mixed culture and an axenic culture (strain PL-1) that utilized propylene as the sole source of carbon and energy were isolated from soil. Respiration rates, enzyme assays, fatty acid profiles, and 14CO2 incorporation experiments suggest that both the mixed culture and strain PL-1 oxidize propylene via attack at the double bond, resulting in a C2+C1 cleavage of the molecule. (+info)
Studies on the influence of fatty acids on pyruvate dehydrogenase interconversion in rat-liver mitochondria.
1. The effect of fatty acids on the interconversion of pyruvate dehydrogenase between its active (nonphosphorylated) and inactive (phosphorylated) forms was measured in rat liver mitochondria respiring in state 3 with pyruvate plus malate and 2-oxoglutarate plus malate and during state 4 to state 3 transition in the presence of different substrates. The content of intramitochondrial adenine nucleotides was determined in the parallel experiments. 2. Decrease of the intramitochondrial ATP/ADP ratio with propionate and its increase with palmitoyl-L-carnitine in state 3 is accompanied by a shift of the steady-state of the pyruvate dehydrogenase system towards the active or the inactive form, respectively. 3. Transition from the high energy state (state4) to the active respiration (state3) in mitochondria oxidizing 2-oxoglutarate or plamitoyl-L-carnitine causes an increase of the amount of the active form of pyruvate dehydrogenase due to the decrease of ATP/ADP ratio in the matrix. 4. No change in ATP/ADP ratio can be observed in the presence of octanoate in mitochondria oxidizing pyruvate or 2-oxoglutarate in state 3 or during state 4 to state 3 transition. Simultanelusly, no significant change in phosphorylation state of pyruvate dehydrogenase occurs and a low amount of the enzyme in the active form is present with octanoate or octanoate plus 2-oxoglutarate. Pyruvate abolishes this effect of octanoate and shifts the steady-state of pyruvate dehydrogenase system towards the active form. 5. These results indicate that fatty acids influence the interconversion of pyruvate dehydrogenase mainly by changing intramitochondrial ATP/ADP ratio. However, the comparison of the steady-state level of the pyruvate dehydrogenase system in the presence of different substrates in various metabolic conditions provides some evidence that accumulation of acetyl-CoA and high level of NADH may promote the phosphorylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase. 6. Pyruvate exerts its protective effect against phosphorylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase in the presence of fatty acids of short, medium or long chain in a manner which depends on its concentration. It is suggested that in isolated mitochondria pyruvate counteracts the effect of acetyl-CoA and NADH on pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. (+info)
Genetic heterogeneity in propionic acidemia patients with alpha-subunit defects. Identification of five novel mutations, one of them causing instability of the protein.
The inherited metabolic disease propionic acidemia (PA) can result from mutations in either of the genes PCCA or PCCB, which encode the alpha and beta subunits, respectively, of the mitochondrial enzyme propionyl CoA-carboxylase. In this work we have analyzed the molecular basis of PCCA gene defects, studying mRNA levels and identifying putative disease causing mutations. A total of 10 different mutations, none predominant, are present in a sample of 24 mutant alleles studied. Five novel mutations are reported here for the first time. A neutral polymorphism and a variant allele present in the general population were also detected. To examine the effect of a point mutation (M348K) involving a highly conserved residue, we have carried out in vitro expression of normal and mutant PCCA cDNA and analyzed the mitochondrial import and stability of the resulting proteins. Both wild-type and mutant proteins were imported into mitochondria and processed into the mature form with similar efficiency, but the mature mutant M348K protein decayed more rapidly than did the wild-type, indicating a reduced stability, which is probably the disease-causing mechanism. (+info)