Microbial oxidation and assimilation of propylene.
Hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms in our culture collection oxidized propylene but could not utilize it as the sole source of carbon and energy. When propane-grown cells of Mycobacterium convulutum were placed on propylene, acrylate, the terminally oxidized, three-carbon unsaturated acid, accumulated. A mixed culture and an axenic culture (strain PL-1) that utilized propylene as the sole source of carbon and energy were isolated from soil. Respiration rates, enzyme assays, fatty acid profiles, and 14CO2 incorporation experiments suggest that both the mixed culture and strain PL-1 oxidize propylene via attack at the double bond, resulting in a C2+C1 cleavage of the molecule. (+info)
Toxicity of combustion products from burning polymers: development and evaluation of methods.
Laboratory and room-scale experiments were conducted with natural and synthetic polymers: cotton, paper, wood, wool, acetate, acrylic, nylon, and urethane. Smoke and off-gases from single materials were generated in a dual-compartment 110-liter exposure chamber. Multicomponent, composite fuel loads were burned within a 100 m(3) facility subdivided into rooms. In chamber experiments, mortality depended on the amount of material burned, i.e., fuel consumption (FC). Conventional dose (FC)/mortality curves were obtained, and the amount of fuel required to produce 50% mortality (FC(50)) was calculated. With simple flame ignition, cotton was the only material that produced smoke concentrations lethal to rats; FC(50) values for cotton ranged from 2 g to 9 g, depending on the configuration of the cotton sample burned. When supplemental conductive heat was added to flame ignition, the following FC(50) values were obtained; nylon, 7 g; acrylic, 8 g; newsprint, 9 g; cotton, 10 g; and wood, 11 g. Mortality resulting from any given material depended upon the specific conditions employed for its thermal decomposition. Toxicity of off-gasses from pyrolysis of phosphorus-containing trimethylol propane-polyurethane foams was markedly decreased by addition of a flame ignition source. Further studies are needed to determine the possible relevance of single-material laboratory scale smoke toxicity experiments. Room-scale burns were conducted to assess the relative contributions of single materials to toxicity of smoke produced by a multicomponent self-perpetuating fire. Preliminary results suggest that this approach permits a realistic evaluation of the contribution of single materials to the toxicity of smoke from residential fires. (+info)
A role for coenzyme M (2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid) in a bacterial pathway of aliphatic epoxide carboxylation.
The bacterial metabolism of short-chain aliphatic alkenes occurs via oxidation to epoxyalkanes followed by carboxylation to beta-ketoacids. Epoxyalkane carboxylation requires four enzymes (components I-IV), NADPH, NAD(+), and a previously unidentified nucleophilic thiol. In the present work, coenzyme M (2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid), a compound previously found only in the methanogenic Archaea where it serves as a methyl group carrier and activator, has been identified as the thiol and central cofactor of aliphatic epoxide carboxylation in the Gram-negative bacterium Xanthobacter strain Py2. Component I catalyzed the addition of coenzyme M to epoxypropane to form a beta-hydroxythioether, 2-(2-hydroxypropylthio)ethanesulfonate. Components III and IV catalyzed the NAD(+)-dependent stereoselective dehydrogenation of R- and S-enantiomers of 2-(2-hydroxypropylthio)ethanesulfonate to form 2-(2-ketopropylthio)ethanesulfonate. Component II catalyzed the NADPH-dependent cleavage and carboxylation of the beta-ketothioether to form acetoacetate and coenzyme M. These findings evince a newfound versatility for coenzyme M as a carrier and activator of alkyl groups longer in chain-length than methane, a function for coenzyme M in a catabolic pathway of hydrocarbon oxidation, and the presence of coenzyme M in the bacterial domain of the phylogenetic tree. These results serve to unify bacterial and Archaeal metabolism further and showcase diverse biological functions for an elegantly simple organic molecule. (+info)
Fraction of electrons consumed in electron acceptor reduction and hydrogen thresholds as indicators of halorespiratory physiology.
Measurements of the hydrogen consumption threshold and the tracking of electrons transferred to the chlorinated electron acceptor (f(e)) reliably detected chlororespiratory physiology in both mixed cultures and pure cultures capable of using tetrachloroethene, cis-1, 2-dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, 2-chlorophenol, 3-chlorobenzoate, 3-chloro-4-hydroxybenzoate, or 1,2-dichloropropane as an electron acceptor. Hydrogen was consumed to significantly lower threshold concentrations of less than 0.4 ppmv compared with the values obtained for the same cultures without a chlorinated compound as an electron acceptor. The f(e) values ranged from 0.63 to 0.7, values which are in good agreement with theoretical calculations based on the thermodynamics of reductive dechlorination as the terminal electron-accepting process. In contrast, a mixed methanogenic culture that cometabolized 3-chlorophenol exhibited a significantly lower f(e) value, 0.012. (+info)
Utilization of trihalogenated propanes by Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1 through heterologous expression of the haloalkane dehalogenase from Rhodococcus sp. strain M15-3.
Trihalogenated propanes are toxic and recalcitrant organic compounds. Attempts to obtain pure bacterial cultures able to use these compounds as sole carbon and energy sources were unsuccessful. Both the haloalkane dehalogenase from Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10 (DhlA) and that from Rhodococcus sp. strain m15-3 (DhaA) were found to dehalogenate trihalopropanes to 2,3-dihalogenated propanols, but the kinetic properties of the latter enzyme are much better. Broad-host-range dehalogenase expression plasmids, based on RSF1010 derivatives, were constructed with the haloalkane dehalogenase from Rhodococcus sp. strain m15-3 under the control of the heterologous promoters P(lac), P(dhlA), and P(trc). The resulting plasmids yielded functional expression in several gram-negative bacteria. A catabolic pathway for trihalopropanes was designed by introducing these broad-host-range dehalogenase expression plasmids into Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1, which has the ability to utilize dihalogenated propanols for growth. The recombinant strain AD1(pTB3), expressing the haloalkane dehalogenase gene under the control of the dhlA promoter, was able to utilize both 1,2,3-tribromopropane and 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane as sole carbon sources. Moreover, increased expression of the haloalkane dehalogenase resulted in elevated resistance to trihalopropanes. (+info)
Fingerprint patterns from laser-induced azido photochemistry of spin-labeled photoaffinity ATP analogs in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.
The photochemical reaction of azide derivatives induced by ultraviolet (UV) laser in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI) is reported. A novel synthesized class of azide aromatic derivatives, spin-labeled photoaffinity non-nucleoside adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analogs which are useful probes in study of muscle contraction mechanism, is used in this investigation. In the negative ion MALDI spectra of these ATP analogs, "fingerprint" peaks corresponding to [M - 10 - 1]-, [M - 12 - 1]-, [M - 16 - 1]-, [M - 26 - 1]-, [M - 28 - 1]-, [M - 41 - 1]-, and [M - 42 - 1]- were observed with relative intensities depending on the MALDI matrix. Only the [M - 16 - 1]- is present in the similar mass spectra of the analog in which the azido group is replaced by a hydrogen. A model is suggested for the photochemical reactions of azide derivatives under UV laser irradiation. The photoreaction fingerprint information is diagnostically useful in characterization of azido compounds, especially for spin-labeled photoaffinity non-nucleoside ATP analogs. (+info)
Carbon monoxide poisoning associated with use of LPG-powered (propane) forklifts in industrial settings--Iowa, 1998.
In 1998, the Iowa Department of Public Health (IDPH) and Iowa State University (ISU) Extension Department, with the assistance of local health departments, investigated a series of carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings associated with the use of liquified petroleum gas (LPG)-powered forklifts in light industry. In each episode, forklifts emitting high CO concentration levels were operated in inadequately ventilated warehouse and production facilities, which resulted in high CO accumulations. Employees at each site developed symptoms of CO poisoning, and some employees received inadequate or inappropriate medical care. This report summarizes the investigations and provides recommendations to prevent such incidents. (+info)
Human phenol sulfotransferases hP-PST and hM-PST activate propane 2-nitronate to a genotoxicant.
The industrial solvent 2-nitropropane (2-NP) is a genotoxic hepatocarcinogen in rats. The genotoxicity of the compound in rats has been attributed to sulfotransferase-mediated formation of DNA-reactive nitrenium ions from the anionic form of 2-NP, propane 2-nitronate (P2N). Whether human sulfotransferases are capable of activating P2N is unknown. In the present study we have addressed this question by investigating the genotoxicity of P2N in various V79-derived cell lines engineered for expression of individual forms of human sulfotransferases, the phenol-sulfating and the monoamine-sulfating phenol sulfotransferases (hP-PST and hM-PST) and the human hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase (hHST). Genotoxicity was assessed by measuring the induction of DNA repair synthesis and by analyzing the formation of DNA modifications. P2N induced repair synthesis in V79-hP-PST and V79-hM-PST cells, whereas induction of repair synthesis in V79-hHST cells was negligible. P2N also resulted in the formation of 8-aminodeoxyguanosine and increased the level of 8-oxodeoxyguanosine in V79-hP-PST cells, but not in the parental V79-MZ cells, which do not show any sulfotransferase activity. Acetone oxime, the tautomeric form of the first reduction product of 2-NP, 2-nitrosopropane, was inactive in all cell lines. The results show that the human phenol sulfotransferases P-PST and M-PST are capable of metabolically activating P2N (P-PST >> M-PST) and that the underlying mechanism is apparently identical to that resulting in the activation of P2N in rat liver, where 2-NP causes carcinomas. These results support the notion that 2-NP should be regarded as a potential human carcinogen. (+info)