The relationship between submaximal activity of the lumbar extensor muscles and lumbar posteroanterior stiffness.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Some patients with low back pain are thought to have increased lumbar posteroanterior (PA) stiffness. Increased activity of the lumbar extensors could contribute to this stiffness. This activity may be seen when a PA force is applied and is thought to represent much less force than occurs with a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Although MVCs of the lumbar extensors are known to increase lumbar PA stiffness, the effect of small amounts of voluntary contraction is not known. In this study, the effect of varying amounts of voluntary isometric muscle activity of the lumbar extensors on lumbar PA stiffness was examined. SUBJECTS: Twenty subjects without low back pain, aged 26 to 45 years (X=34, SD=5.6), participated in the study. METHODS: Subjects were asked to perform an isometric MVC of their lumbar extensor muscles with their pelvis fixed by exerting a force against a steel plate located over their T4 spinous process. They were then asked to perform contractions generating force equivalent to 0%, 10%, 30%, 50%, and 100% of that obtained with an MVC. Posteroanterior stiffness at L4 was measured during these contractions. RESULTS: A Friedman one-way analysis of variance for repeated measures demonstrated a difference in PA stiffness among all levels of muscle activity. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION: Voluntary contraction of the lumbar extensor muscles will result in an increase in lumbar PA stiffness even at low levels of activity. (+info)
Pulmonary perfusion is more uniform in the prone than in the supine position: scintigraphy in healthy humans.
The main purpose of this study was to find out whether the dominant dorsal lung perfusion while supine changes to a dominant ventral lung perfusion while prone. Regional distribution of pulmonary blood flow was determined in 10 healthy volunteers. The subjects were studied in both prone and supine positions with and without lung distension caused by 10 cmH2O of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Radiolabeled macroaggregates of albumin, rapidly trapped by pulmonary capillaries in proportion to blood flow, were injected intravenously. Tomographic gamma camera examinations (single-photon-emission computed tomography) were performed after injections in the different positions. All data acquisitions were made with the subject in the supine position. CPAP enhanced perfusion differences along the gravitational axis, which was more pronounced in the supine than prone position. Diaphragmatic sections of the lung had a more uniform pulmonary blood flow distribution in the prone than supine position during both normal and CPAP breathing. It was concluded that the dominant dorsal lung perfusion observed when the subjects were supine was not changed into a dominant ventral lung perfusion when the subjects were prone. Lung perfusion was more uniformly distributed in the prone compared with in the supine position, a difference that was more marked during total lung distension (CPAP) than during normal breathing. (+info)
Living at high altitude and risk of sudden infant death syndrome.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between altitude of residence and risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). METHODS: A retrospective, case control study in the Tyrol, Austria enrolled 99 infants with SIDS occurring between 1984 and 1994, and 136 randomly selected control cases. Data on pregnancy, delivery, child care practice, and socio-demographic characteristics including altitude of residence were collected with a standardised questionnaire. RESULTS: The risk of SIDS increased gradually with increasing altitude of residence. This relation remained independently significant when the analysis was adjusted for gestational age, birth weight, prenatal care, mother's age at delivery, educational level of parents, and cigarette smoking during pregnancy. The prone sleeping position emerged as an obligatory cofactor in this association. In the whole of Austria, a similar trend of association emerged between the average altitudes in the 99 political counties and the rates of SIDS. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified altitude of residence as a significant risk predictor of SIDS, primarily in combination with the prone sleeping position. Respiratory disturbances, reduced oxygen saturation, and lower temperatures at high altitude might explain this association. (+info)
Electromyographic study of the elbow flexors and extensors in a motion of forearm pronation/supination while maintaining elbow flexion in humans.
Activities of the elbow flexors (biceps brachii, BB; brachialis, B; brachioradialis, BR) and extensors (triceps brachii, TB) in a motion of forearm pronation/supination with maintenance of elbow flexion (PS-movement) in nine healthy human subjects were studied by electromyography (EMG). The subject performed the PS-movement slowly or quickly with or without a load extending the elbow. In the slow PS-movement, an increase and decrease of EMG activities during supination and pronation, respectively, were seen in BB and the reverse was in B. A clear increment of EMG activities in BB accompanied with a reduction of EMG activities in B and/or BR, and the reverse were often observed. The contraction level and gain with the forearm supine were higher and larger than those with the forearm prone, respectively, in BB and the reverse was in B and BR. In a series of the quick PS-movement, alternating increases of EMG activities between BB and the other flexors (B and BR) were seen. Since TB showed no EMG activities throughout the experiment, it is suggested that reciprocal contractions between BB and the other flexors, which produce a complementary force in flexion direction, enable motions of pronation/supination with maintenance of flexion. Contraction properties of the flexors were discussed. (+info)
Sympathetic responses to head-down rotations in humans.
Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) increases with head-down neck flexion (HDNF). The present study had three aims: 1) to examine sympathetic and vascular responses to two different magnitudes of HDNF; 2) to examine these same responses during prolonged HDNF; and 3) to determine the influence of nonspecific pressure receptors in the head on MSNA. The first experiment tested responses to two static head positions in the vertical axis [HDNF and intermediate HDNF (I-HDNF; approximately 50% of HDNF)]. MSNA increased above baseline during both I-HDNF and HDNF (from 219 +/- 36 to 301 +/- 47 and from 238 +/- 42 to 356 +/- 59 units/min, respectively; P < 0.01). Calf blood flow (CBF) decreased and calf vascular resistance increased during both I-HDNF and HDNF (P < 0.01). Both the increase in MSNA and the decrease in CBF were linearly related to the magnitude of the downward head rotations (P < 0.01). The second experiment tested responses during prolonged HDNF. MSNA increased (from 223 +/- 63 to 315 +/- 79 units/min; P < 0.01) and CBF decreased (from 3.2 +/- 0.4 to 2.6 +/- 0.04 ml. 100 ml-1. min-1; P < 0.01) at the onset of HDNF. These responses were maintained throughout the 30-min period. Mean arterial blood pressure gradually increased during the 30 min of HDNF (from 94 +/- 4 to 105 +/- 3 mmHg; P < 0.01). In a third experiment, head-down neck extension was performed with subjects in the supine position. Unlike HDNF, head-down neck extension did not affect MSNA. The results from these studies demonstrate that MSNA: 1) increases in magnitude as the degree of HDNF increases; 2) remains elevated above baseline during prolonged HDNF; and 3) responses during HDNF are not associated with nonspecific receptors in the head activated by increases in cerebral pressure. (+info)
Prevalence and determinants of prone sleeping position in infants: results from two cross-sectional studies on risk factors for SIDS in Germany.
The authors investigated whether there was a decline in infants sleeping prone and other modifiable risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in Germany, where, as in some other countries, no nationwide intervention campaign against the prone sleeping position had been initiated. Data were obtained from parents by mailed questionnaires in two cross-sectional studies in 1991 (n = 3,330) and 1995 (n = 3,124). Prevalence of prone sleeping decreased from 37.6% to 8.7% (p < 0.05) in the German population and from 44.1% to 32.0% (p < 0.05) in the Turkish immigrant population. Parents who laid their infants prone in 1995 were less likely to follow advice from physicians, public media, and other parents (relative risks < 0.5, p < 0.05) and were more likely to have a low educational level, to be <20 years old, to be single parents, to have two or more children, to be raised in West Germany, or to be of Turkish ethnicity. Although the information on prone sleeping being a risk factor for SIDS became known among the population, these data suggest that subgroup-specific public intervention campaigns may be needed to reduce the prevalence of prone sleeping even further in those countries where no nationwide campaign has been initiated. (+info)
Combining partial liquid ventilation and prone position in experimental acute lung injury.
BACKGROUND: Partial liquid ventilation (PLV) and prone position can improve arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) in acute lung injury (ALI). The authors evaluated additive effects of these techniques in a saline lung lavage model of ALI. METHODS: ALI was induced in 20 medium-sized pigs (29.2+/-2.5 kg body weight). Gas exchange and hemodynamic parameters were determined in both supine and prone position in all animals. Thereafter, one group was assigned to PLV with two sequential doses of 15 ml/kg of perfluorocarbon (n = 10); the second group was assigned to gaseous ventilation (n = 10). Gas-exchange and hemodynamic parameters were determined at corresponding time points in both groups in prone and supine position. RESULTS: In the PLV group, positioning the animals prone resulted in an increase of PaO2 prior to PLV and during PLV with both doses of perfluorocarbon when compared to ALI. PLV in supine position was only effective if 30 ml/kg of perfluorocarbon was applied. In the gaseous ventilation group, PaO2 increased reproducibly compared with ALI when the animals were turned prone. A significant additive improvement of arterial oxygenation was observed during combined therapy with 30 ml/kg of perfluorocarbon and prone position in the PLV group compared with either therapy alone. CONCLUSIONS: The authors conclude that combining PLV with prone position exerts additive effects on pulmonary gas exchange in a saline lung lavage model of ALI in medium-sized pigs. (+info)
Prone and left lateral positioning reduce gastro-oesophageal reflux in preterm infants.
AIM: To examine the effect of body position on clinically significant gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) in preterm infants. METHODS: Eighteen preterm infants with clinically significant GOR were studied prospectively using 24 hour lower oesophageal pH monitoring. Infants were nursed in three positions (prone, left, and right lateral) for 8 hours in each position, with the order randomly assigned. Data were analysed using analysis of covariance. RESULTS: The median (range) reflux index (RI) for the group was 13.8% (5.8-40. 4). There was no significant difference in the mean time spent in each position. RI (mean % (SEM)) was significantly less in prone (6. 3 (1.7)) and left lateral positions (11.0 (2.2)), when compared with the right lateral position (29.4 (3.2)); p<0.001. The mean (SEM) longest episodes (mins) of GOR were reduced by prone and left positions (8.6 (2.2) and 10.0 (2.4), respectively) compared with the right position (26.0 (3.9)); p<0.001. The mean (SE) number of episodes was reduced by prone (15.4 (2.8)) and left (24.6 (3.5)) positions when compared with right (41.6 (4.6)) (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Prone and left lateral positions significantly reduce the severity of GOR, by reducing the number of episodes and the duration of the longest episodes. Such positioning offers a useful adjunct to the treatment in hospital of preterm infants with gastro-oesophageal reflux. (+info)