(1/129) B7-DC, a new dendritic cell molecule with potent costimulatory properties for T cells.
Dendritic cells (DCs), unique antigen-presenting cells (APCs) with potent T cell stimulatory capacity, direct the activation and differentiation of T cells by providing costimulatory signals. As such, they are critical regulators of both natural and vaccine-induced immune responses. A new B7 family member, B7-DC, whose expression is highly restricted to DCs, was identified among a library of genes differentially expressed between DCs and activated macrophages. B7-DC fails to bind the B7.1/2 receptors CD28 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen (CTLA)-4, but does bind PD-1, a receptor for B7-H1/PD-L1. B7-DC costimulates T cell proliferation more efficiently than B7.1 and induces a distinct pattern of lymphokine secretion. In particular, B7-DC strongly costimulates interferon gamma but not interleukin (IL)-4 or IL-10 production from isolated naive T cells. These properties of B7-DC may account for some of the unique activity of DCs, such as their ability to initiate potent T helper cell type 1 responses. (+info)
(2/129) Expression of programmed death 1 ligands by murine T cells and APC.
Programmed death 1 (PD-1) is a new member of the CD28/CTLA-4 family, which has been implicated in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance. Two ligands for PD-1, namely, B7-H1 (PD-L1) and B7-DC (PD-L2), have recently been identified as new members of the B7 family but their expression at the protein level remains largely unknown. To characterize the expression of B7-H1 and B7-DC, we newly generated an anti-mouse B7-H1 mAb (MIH6) and an anti-mouse B7-DC mAb (TY25). MIH6 and TY25 immunoprecipitated a single molecule of 43 and 42 kDa from the lysate of B7-H1 and B7-DC transfectants, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that B7-H1 was broadly expressed on the surface of mouse tumor cell lines while the expression of B7-DC was rather restricted. PD-1 was expressed on anti-CD3-stimulated T cells and anti-IgM plus anti-CD40-stimulated B cells at high levels but was undetectable on activated macrophages or DCs. B7-H1 was constitutively expressed on freshly isolated splenic T cells, B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs), and up-regulated on T cells by anti-CD3 stimulation on macrophages by LPS, IFN-gamma, GM-CSF, or IL-4, and on DCs by IFN-gamma, GM-CSF, or IL-4. In contrast, B7-DC expression was only inducible on macrophages and DCs upon stimulation with IFN-gamma, GM-CSF, or IL-4. The inducible expression of PD-1 ligands on both T cells and APCs may suggest new paradigms of PD-1-mediated immune regulation. (+info)
(3/129) Programmed death-1 targeting can promote allograft survival.
The recently identified CD28 homolog and costimulatory molecule programmed death-1 (PD-1) and its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, which are homologs of B7, constitute an inhibitory regulatory pathway of potential therapeutic use in immune-mediated diseases. We examined the expression and functions of PD-1 and its ligands in experimental cardiac allograft rejection. In initial studies, we found that most normal tissues and cardiac isografts had minimal expression of PD-1, PD-L1, or PD-L2, but intragraft induction of all three molecules occurred during development of cardiac allograft rejection. Intragraft expression of all three genes was maintained despite therapy with cyclosporin A or rapamycin, but was prevented in the early posttransplant period by costimulation blockade using CD154 or anti-inducible costimulator mAb. We prepared PD-L1.Ig and PD-L2.Ig fusion proteins and showed that each bound to activated PD-1(+) T cells and inhibited T cell functions in vitro, thereby allowing us to test the effects of PD-1 targeting on allograft survival in vivo. Neither agent alone modulated allograft rejection in wild-type recipients. However, use of PD-L1.Ig administration in CD28(-/-) recipients, or in conjunction with immunosuppression in fully MHC-disparate combinations, markedly prolonged cardiac allograft survival, in some cases causing permanent engraftment, and was accompanied by reduced intragraft expression of IFN-gamma and IFN-gamma-induced chemokines. PD-L1.Ig use also prevented development of transplant arteriosclerosis post-CD154 mAb therapy. These data show that when combined with limited immunosuppression, or in the context of submaximal TCR or costimulatory signals, targeting of PD-1 can block allograft rejection and modulate T and B cell-dependent pathologic immune responses in vivo. (+info)
(4/129) Program death-1 engagement upon TCR activation has distinct effects on costimulation and cytokine-driven proliferation: attenuation of ICOS, IL-4, and IL-21, but not CD28, IL-7, and IL-15 responses.
The program death 1 (PD-1) receptor and its ligands, PD-1 ligand (PD-L)1 and PD-L2, define a novel regulatory pathway with potential inhibitory effects on T, B, and monocyte responses. In the present study, we show that human CD4(+) T cells express PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2 upon activation, and Abs to the receptor can be agonists or antagonists of the pathway. Under optimal conditions of stimulation, ICOS but not CD28 costimulation can be prevented by PD-1 engagement. IL-2 levels induced by costimulation are critical in determining the outcome of the PD-1 engagement. Thus, low to marginal IL-2 levels produced upon ICOS costimulation account for the greater sensitivity of this pathway to PD-1-mediated inhibition. Interestingly, exogenous IL-2, IL-7, and IL-15 but not IL-4 and IL-21 can rescue PD-1 inhibition, suggesting that among these cytokines only those that activate STAT5 can rescue PD-1 inhibition. As STAT5 has been implicated in the maintenance of IL-2Ralpha expression, these results suggest that IL-7 and IL-15 restore proliferation under conditions of PD-1 engagement by enhancing high-affinity IL-2R expression and hence, IL-2 responsiveness. (+info)
(5/129) Blockade of programmed death-1 ligands on dendritic cells enhances T cell activation and cytokine production.
Programmed death-1 ligand (PD-L)1 and PD-L2 are ligands for programmed death-1 (PD-1), a member of the CD28/CTLA4 family expressed on activated lymphoid cells. PD-1 contains an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif and mice deficient in PD-1 develop autoimmune disorders suggesting a defect in peripheral tolerance. Human PD-L1 and PD-L2 are expressed on immature dendritic cells (iDC) and mature dendritic cells (mDC), IFN-gamma-treated monocytes, and follicular dendritic cells. Using mAbs, we show that blockade of PD-L2 on dendritic cells results in enhanced T cell proliferation and cytokine production, including that of IFN-gamma and IL-10, while blockade of PD-L1 results in similar, more modest, effects. Blockade of both PD-L1 and PD-L2 showed an additive effect. Both whole mAb and Fab enhanced T cell activation, showing that PD-L1 and PD-L2 function to inhibit T cell activation. Enhancement of T cell activation was most pronounced with weak APC, such as iDCs and IL-10-pretreated mDCs, and less pronounced with strong APC such as mDCs. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that iDC have a balance of stimulatory vs inhibitory molecules that favors inhibition, and indicate that PD-L1 and PD-L2 contribute to the poor stimulatory capacity of iDC. PD-L1 expression differs from PD-L2 in that PD-L1 is expressed on activated T cells, placental trophoblasts, myocardial endothelium, and cortical thymic epithelial cells. In contrast, PD-L2 is expressed on placental endothelium and medullary thymic epithelial cells. PD-L1 is also highly expressed on most carcinomas but minimally expressed on adjacent normal tissue suggesting a role in attenuating antitumor immune responses. (+info)
(6/129) Naturally occurring human IgM antibody that binds B7-DC and potentiates T cell stimulation by dendritic cells.
A human IgM Ab, serum-derived human IgM 12 (sHIgM12), is identified that binds mouse and human dendritic cells (DC), inducing dramatic immunopotentiation following treatment of the mouse DC in vitro. Competition, transfection, and knockout studies identified the ligand on mouse DC as the costimulatory molecule family member B7-DC. Potent T cell responses are stimulated by Ag-pulsed DC treated with the sHIgM12 Ab in vitro and upon adoptive transfer of Ab-treated Ag-pulsed DC into animals. The multivalent structure of pentameric IgM provides the potential for cross-linking cell surface targets, endowing the soluble Abs with biological potential not normally associated with immune function. The ability of the sHIgM12 Ab to potentiate the immune response is dependent on the multimeric structure of IgM, as bivalent monomers do not retain this property. Furthermore, pretreatment of DC with IgM monomers blocks subsequent potentiation by intact IgM pentamers, an indication that cross-linking of B7-DC on the cell surface is critical for potentiation of Ag presentation. These findings imply that, in addition to known costimulatory roles, B7-DC can function as a receptor for signals delivered by cells expressing B7-DC ligands. (+info)
(7/129) PD-L1 and PD-L2 are differentially regulated by Th1 and Th2 cells.
PD-L1 and PD-L2 are ligands for PD-1, a costimulatory molecule that plays an inhibitory role in regulating T cell activation in the periphery. We find that PD-L1 is highly expressed on inflammatory macrophages as compared with resident peritoneal macrophages but can be induced on resident macrophages by classical activation stimuli such as lipopolysaccharide, IFN-gamma, and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid. Further up-regulation of PD-L1 on inflammatory macrophages can also be induced by subsequent exposure to lipopolysaccharide and IFN-gamma. In contrast, PD-L2 is not expressed on inflammatory macrophages but can be induced by alternative activation via IL-4. Although PD-L1 is highly inducible on a variety of antigen-presenting cell lines as well as resident macrophages, PD-L2 is most significantly inducible only on inflammatory macrophages. PD-L1 up-regulation depends on TLR4 and STAT1, whereas PD-L2 expression depends on IL-4R alpha and STAT6. Consistent with these results, T helper 1T helper 2 (Th1/Th2) cells also differentially up-regulate PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression on inflammatory macrophages. Hence, Th1 cells as well as microbial products can enhance PD-L1 expression on many different macrophage populations, whereas Th2 cells instruct only inflammatory macrophages to up-regulate PD-L2. These results suggest that PD-L1 and PD-L2 might have different functions in regulating type 1 and type 2 responses. (+info)
(8/129) Molecular modeling and functional mapping of B7-H1 and B7-DC uncouple costimulatory function from PD-1 interaction.
B7-H1 and B7-DC are ligands for PD-1, a receptor implicated in negative regulation of T and B cell functions. These ligands, however, also costimulate T cell responses. It remains elusive whether or not costimulation is mediated through PD-1. By comparative molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis, we found that nonconserved residues between these ligands on the A'GFCC'C" face mediate interaction with PD-1. This indicates significant structural heterogeneity of the interactions between PD-1 and its ligands. Importantly, ligand mutants with abolished PD-1 binding capacity could still costimulate proliferation and cytokine production of T cells from normal and PD-1-deficient mice. Our results reveal unique binding characteristics of B7-H1 and B7-DC and provide direct evidence for an independent costimulatory receptor other than PD-1. (+info)