A single C-terminal peptide segment mediates both membrane association and localization of lysyl hydroxylase in the endoplasmic reticulum.
Hydroxylation of lysyl residues is crucial for the unique glycosylation pattern found in collagens and for the mechanical strength of fully assembled extracellular collagen fibers. Hydroxylation is catalyzed in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by a specific enzyme, lysyl hydroxylase (LH). The absence of the known ER-specific retrieval motifs in its primary structure and its association with the ER membranes in vivo have suggested that the enzyme is localized in the ER via a novel retention/retrieval mechanism. We have identified here a 40-amino acid C-terminal peptide segment of LH that is able to convert cathepsin D, normally a soluble lysosomal protease, into a membrane-associated protein. The same segment also markedly slows down the transport of the reporter protein from the ER into post-ER compartments, as assessed by our pulse-chase experiments. The retardation efficiency mediated by this C-terminal peptide segment is comparable with that of the intact LH but lower than that of the KDEL receptor-based retrieval mechanism. Within this 40-amino acid segment, the first 25 amino acids appear to be the most crucial ones in terms of membrane association and ER localization, because the last 15 C-terminal amino acids did not possess substantial retardation activity alone. Our findings thus define a short peptide segment very close to the extreme C terminus of LH as the only necessary determinant both for its membrane association and localization in the ER. (+info)
Lysyl hydroxylase 3 is a multifunctional protein possessing collagen glucosyltransferase activity.
Lysyl hydroxylase (EC ) and glucosyltransferase (EC ) are enzymes involved in post-translational modifications during collagen biosynthesis. We reveal in this paper that the protein produced by the cDNA for human lysyl hydroxylase isoform 3 (LH3) has both lysyl hydroxylase and glucosyltransferase (GGT) activities. The other known lysyl hydroxylase isoforms, LH1, LH2a, and LH2b, have no GGT activity. Furthermore, antibodies recognizing the amino acid sequence of human LH3 and those against a highly purified chicken GGT partially inhibited the GGT activity. Similarly, a partial inhibition was observed when these antibodies were tested against GGT extracted from human skin fibroblasts. In vitro mutagenesis experiments demonstrate that the amino acids involved in the GGT active site differ from those required for LH3 activity. (+info)
The let-268 locus of Caenorhabditis elegans encodes a procollagen lysyl hydroxylase that is essential for type IV collagen secretion.
Basement membranes are thin sheets of specialized extracellular matrix molecules that are important for supplying mechanical support and for providing an interactive surface for cell morphology. Prior to secretion and assembly, basement membrane molecules undergo intracellular processing, which is essential for their function. We have identified several mutations in a procollagen processing enzyme, lysyl hydroxylase (let-268). The Caenorhabditis elegans lysyl hydroxylase is highly similar to the vertebrate lysyl hydroxylase, containing all essential motifs required for enzymatic activity, and is the only lysyl hydroxylase found in the C. elegans sequenced genome. In the absence of C. elegans lysyl hydroxylase, type IV collagen is expressed; however, it is retained within the type IV collagen-producing cells. This observation indicates that in let-268 mutants the processing and secretion of type IV collagen is disrupted. Our examination of the body wall muscle in these mutant animals reveals normal myofilament assembly prior to contraction. However, once body wall muscle contraction commences the muscle cells separate from the underlying epidermal layer (the hypodermis) and the myofilaments become disorganized. These observations indicate that type IV collagen is required in the basement membrane for mechanical support and not for organogenesis of the body wall muscle. (+info)
PITX2 regulates procollagen lysyl hydroxylase (PLOD) gene expression: implications for the pathology of Rieger syndrome.
The Rieger syndrome is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by ocular, craniofacial, and umbilical defects. Patients have mutations in PITX2, a paired-bicoid homeobox gene, also involved in left/right polarity determination. In this study we have identified a family of genes for enzymes responsible for hydroxylizing lysines in collagens as one group of likely cognate targets of PITX2 transcriptional regulation. The mouse procollagen lysyl hydroxylase (Plod)-2 gene was enriched for by chromatin precipitation using a PITX2/Pitx2-specific antibody. Plod-2, as well as the human PLOD-1 promoters, contains multiple bicoid (PITX2) binding elements. We show these elements to bind PITX2 specifically in vitro. The PLOD-1 promoter induces the expression of a luciferase reporter gene in the presence of PITX2 in cotransfection experiments. The Rieger syndrome causing PITX2 mutant T68P fails to induce PLOD-1-luciferase. Mutations and rearrangements in PLOD-1 are known to be prevalent in patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, kyphoscoliosis type (type VI [EDVI]). Several of the same organ systems are involved in Rieger syndrome and EDVI. (+info)
Gene duplication in the diversification of secondary metabolism: tandem 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases control glucosinolate biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.
Secondary metabolites are a diverse set of plant compounds believed to have numerous functions in plant-environment interactions. The large chemical diversity of secondary metabolites undoubtedly arises from an equally diverse set of enzymes responsible for their biosynthesis. However, little is known about the evolution of enzymes involved in secondary metabolism. We are studying the biosynthesis of glucosinolates, a large group of secondary metabolites, in Arabidopsis to investigate the evolution of enzymes involved in secondary metabolism. Arabidopsis contains natural variations in the presence of methylsulfinylalkyl, alkenyl, and hydroxyalkyl glucosinolates. In this article, we report the identification of genes encoding two 2-oxoglutarate--dependent dioxygenases that are responsible for this variation. These genes, AOP2 and AOP3, which map to the same position on chromosome IV, result from an apparent gene duplication and control the conversion of methylsulfinylalkyl glucosinolate to either the alkenyl or the hydroxyalkyl form. By heterologous expression in Escherichia and the correlation of gene expression patterns to the glucosinolate phenotype, we show that AOP2 catalyzes the conversion of methylsulfinylalkyl glucosinolates to alkenyl glucosinolates. Conversely, AOP3 directs the formation of hydroxyalkyl glucosinolates from methylsulfinylalkyl glucosinolates. No ecotype coexpressed both genes. Furthermore, the absence of functional AOP2 and AOP3 leads to the accumulation of the precursor methylsulfinylalkyl glucosinolates. A third member of this gene family, AOP1, is present in at least two forms and found in all ecotypes examined. However, its catalytic role is still uncertain. (+info)
Adenoviral gene transfer restores lysyl hydroxylase activity in type VI Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.
Type VI Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a disease characterized by disturbed lysine hydroxylation of collagen. The disease is caused by mutations in lysyl hydroxylase 1 gene and it affects several organs including the cardiovascular system, the joint and musculoskeletal system, and the skin. The skin of type VI Ehlers-Danlos syndrome patients is hyperelastic, scars easily, and heals slowly and poorly. We hypothesized that providing functional lysyl hydroxylase 1 gene to the fibroblasts in and around wounds in these patients would improve healing. In this study we tested the feasibility of transfer of the lysyl hydroxylase 1 gene into fibroblasts derived from rats and a type VI Ehlers-Danlos syndrome patient (in vitro) and into rat skin (in vivo). We first cloned human lysyl hydroxylase 1 cDNA into a recombinant adenoviral vector (Ad5RSV-LH). Transfection of human type VI Ehlers-Danlos syndrome fibroblasts (about 20% of normal lysyl hydroxylase 1 activity) with the vector increased lysyl hydroxylase 1 activity in these cells to near or greater levels than that of wild type, unaffected fibroblasts. The adenoviral vector successfully transfected rat fibroblasts producing both beta-galactosidase and lysyl hydroxylase 1 gene activity. We next expanded our studies to a rodent model. Intradermal injections of the vector to the abdominal skin of rats produced lysyl hydroxylase 1 mRNA and elevated lysyl hydroxylase 1 activity, in vivo. These data suggest the feasibility of gene replacement therapy to modify skin wound healing in type VI Ehlers-Danlos syndrome patients. (+info)
Identification of amino acids important for the catalytic activity of the collagen glucosyltransferase associated with the multifunctional lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3).
Collagen glucosyltransferase (GGT) activity has recently been shown to be associated with human lysyl hydroxylase (LH) isoform 3 (LH3) (Heikkinen, J., Risteli, M., Wang, C., Latvala, J., Rossi, M., Valtavaara, M., Myllyla, R. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 36158-36163). The LH and GGT activities of the multifunctional LH3 protein modify lysyl residues in collagens posttranslationally to form hydroxylysyl and glucosylgalactosyl hydroxylysyl residues respectively. We now report that in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, where only one ortholog is found for lysyl hydroxylase, the LH and GGT activities are also associated with the same gene product. The aim of the present studies is the identification of amino acids important for the catalytic activity of GGT. Our data indicate that the GGT active site is separate from the carboxyl-terminal LH active site of human LH3, the amino acids important for the GGT activity being located at the amino-terminal part of the molecule. Site-directed mutagenesis of a conserved cysteine at position 144 to isoleucine and a leucine at position 208 to isoleucine caused a marked reduction in GGT activity. These amino acids were conserved in C. elegans LH and mammalian LH3, but not in LH1 or LH2, which lack GGT activity. The data also reveal a DXD-like motif in LH3 characteristic of many glycosyltransferases and the mutagenesis of aspartates of this motif eliminated the GGT activity. Reduction in GGT activity was not accompanied by a change in the LH activity of the molecule. Thus GGT activity can be manipulated independently of LH activity in LH3. These data provide the information needed to design knock-out studies for investigation of the function of glucosylgalactosyl hydroxylysyl residues of collagens in vivo. (+info)
Characterization of three fragments that constitute the monomers of the human lysyl hydroxylase isoenzymes 1-3. The 30-kDa N-terminal fragment is not required for lysyl hydroxylase activity.
Lysyl hydroxylase (LH) catalyzes the formation of hydroxylysine in collagens; three human isoenzymes have been cloned so far. We report here on the purification of all three recombinant isoenzymes to homogeneity from the medium of cultured insect cells, and we demonstrate that they are all homodimers. Limited proteolysis experiments identified two main protease-sensitive regions in the monomers of about 80-85 kDa, corresponding to three fragments A-C (from the N to C terminus), with molecular masses of about 30, 37, and 16 kDa, respectively. Fragment A was found to play no role in LH activity as a recombinant B-C polypeptide constituted a fully active hydroxylase with K(m) values for cosubstrates and the peptide substrate that were identical to those of the full-length enzyme. LH3, but not LH1 and LH2, has also been reported recently (Heikkinen, J., Risteli, M., Wang, C., Latvala, J., Rossi, M., Valtavaara, M., and Myllyla, R. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 36158-36163) to possess collagen glucosyltransferase activity. We confirm this highly surprising finding here and extend it by demonstrating that LH3 may also possess trace amounts of collagen galactosyltransferase activity. All the glucosyltransferase and galactosyltransferase activity of LH3 was found to reside in fragment A, which played no role in the hydroxylase activity of the polypeptide. This fragment is about 55% identical and 80% similar to the corresponding fragments of LH1 and LH2. However, the levels of the glycosyltransferase activities are so low that they may be of little biological significance. It is thus evident that human tissues must have additional glycosyltransferases that are responsible for most of the collagen glycosylation in vivo. (+info)