Prednisone in MOPP chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease.
High remission rates have been produced by MOPP (mustine, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone) chemotherapy in patients with advanced Hodgkin's disease, but the prednisone component has caused adverse effects in patients who have undergone radiotherapy. The remission rates and length of remission were reviewed in 211 patients with Hodgkin's disease who received chemotherapy either with or without prednisone. In contrast to the findings of a British study, there were no significant differences in remission rates or length of remission between patients who had received prednisone and patients who had not. There were differences between the British prospective study and this retrospective one, but it is difficult to know what accounted for the substantial differences in the findings. (+info)
Procarbazine and high-dose tamoxifen as a second-line regimen in recurrent high-grade gliomas: a phase II study.
PURPOSE: A phase II study was conducted in patients with high-grade gliomas that recurred after surgery plus radiotherapy and a first-line nitrosourea-based regimen. Our aim was to investigate the efficacy of procarbazine (PCB) combined with high-dose tamoxifen in relation to tumor control, toxicity, and time to progression (TTP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-three patients were treated with procarbazine in repeated 30-day courses at 100 mg/m2/d plus tamoxifen 100 mg/d, with a 30-day interval between courses. Thirty-four patients had been pretreated with a first-line nitrosourea-based chemotherapy regimen (group A), and 19 patients had also been pretreated with a second-line chemotherapy regimen consisting of carboplatin and teniposide (group B). Twenty-one of the patients had also been procarbazine pretreated, whereas the remaining 32 patients were not procarbazine pretreated. RESULTS: The response was assessed in 51 patients, 28 of whom had glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and 23 of whom had anaplastic astrocytoma (AA). There were two complete responses (CR) (4%) and 13 partial responses (PR) (25.5%). The overall response rate (CR + PR) was 29.5% (SE, 6.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 23 to 35.8). Seventeen patients (32%) had stable disease (SE, 6.2; 95% CI, 21 to 33.6). The median TTP was 13 weeks for patients with GBM and 33 weeks for patients with AA (P = .006). The median survival time (MST) was 27 weeks for patients with GBM and 57 weeks for those with AA (P = .006). CONCLUSION: Combined PCB and tamoxifen as a second-line regimen gave a reasonably high response rate in patients with heavily pretreated high-grade gliomas. However, although it resulted in an improvement in the patients' quality of life and/or performance status, it was not followed by an increased TTP or MST. (+info)
Testicular function after cytotoxic chemotherapy: evidence of Leydig cell insufficiency.
PURPOSE: To evaluate testicular function in men after treatment with cytotoxic chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We measured testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels in 209 men after treatment with mechlorethamine, vinblastine, procarbazine, and prednisone, hybrid chemotherapy, or high-dose chemotherapy and in 54 healthy age-matched controls. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 38 years (range, 19 to 68 years), and all patients had received chemotherapy between 1 and 22 years previously. Patients had significantly higher mean LH (7.9 v 4.1 IU/L; P < .0001) and FSH levels (18.8 v 3.1 IU/L; P < .0001) than controls. There was no significant difference in mean total testosterone level between the patients and controls, but there was a trend toward a lower mean testosterone/SHBG ratio in the patients (0.63 v 0.7; P = .08). Analysis of the hormonal parameters using a model that allowed for the effects of increasing age on testicular function showed evidence of significant recovery of gonadal function in the first 10 years after treatment. Fifty-two percent of patients had LH levels at or above the upper limit of normal, and 32% of patients had increased LH with testosterone levels in the lower half of the normal range, suggesting a degree of Leydig cell impairment. CONCLUSION: In a significant proportion of men, there is good evidence of Leydig cell dysfunction after cytotoxic chemotherapy. The clinical significance of this Leydig cell dysfunction is not clear, but some of these men may benefit from testosterone replacement. Further studies are warranted. (+info)
MSF (MLL septin-like fusion), a fusion partner gene of MLL, in a therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia with a t(11;17)(q23;q25).
MLL (ALL1, Htrx, HRX), which is located on chromosome band 11q23, frequently is rearranged in patients with therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia who previously were treated with DNA topoisomerase II inhibitors. In this study, we have identified a fusion partner of MLL in a 10-year-old female who developed therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia 17 months after treatment for Hodgkin's disease. Leukemia cells of this patient had a t(11;17)(q23;q25), which involved MLL as demonstrated by Southern blot analysis. The partner gene was cloned from cDNA of the leukemia cells by use of a combination of adapter reverse transcriptase-PCR, rapid amplification of 5' cDNA ends, and BLAST database analysis to identify expressed sequence tags. The full-length cDNA of 2.8 kb was found to be an additional member of the septin family, therefore it was named MSF (MLL septin-like fusion). Members of the septin family conserve the GTP binding domain, localize in the cytoplasm, and interact with cytoskeletal filaments. A major 4-kb transcript of MSF was expressed ubiquitously; a 1.7-kb transcript was found in most tissues. An additional 3-kb transcript was found only in hematopoietic tissues. By amplification with MLL exon 5 forward primer and reverse primers in MSF, the appropriately sized products were obtained. MSF is highly homologous to hCDCrel-1, which is a partner gene of MLL in leukemias with a t(11;22)(q23;q11.2). Further analysis of MSF may help to delineate the function of MLL partner genes in leukemia, particularly in therapy-related leukemia. (+info)
Effect of Epstein-Barr virus infection on response to chemotherapy and survival in Hodgkin's disease.
We have analyzed paraffin sections from 190 patients with histologically confirmed Hodgkin's disease (HD) for the presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) using in situ hybridization to detect the EBV-encoded Epstein-Barr virus early RNAs (EBERs) and immunohistochemistry to identify latent membrane protein-1 (LMP1) expression. EBV was present in the tumor cells in 51 HD cases (27%) and was mainly confined to the mixed cellularity and nodular sclerosis subtypes. There was no difference between EBV-positive and EBV-negative HD patients with regard to age, clinical stage, presentation, and the number of alternating chemotherapy cycles of ChIVPP and PABIOE received. The complete remission rate after study chemotherapy was 80% in EBV-positive patients versus 69% in EBV-negative patients (P =.05). The 2-year failure-free survival rate was significantly better for EBV-positive patients when compared with the EBV-negative HD group (P =.02). Although 2-year and 5-year overall survival rates were better for EBV-positive HD patients, the differences were not statistically significant (P =.18 and P =.40, respectively). In conclusion, the results confirm the favorable prognostic value of EBV in the tumor cells of HD patients and suggest important differences in response to chemotherapy between EBV-positive and EBV-negative patients. (+info)
Hormonal treatment after cytotoxic therapy stimulates recovery of spermatogenesis.
Previous studies have shown that treatment of rats with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues or steroids either before exposure to procarbazine or radiation or after irradiation enhances subsequent levels of spermatogenesis. We demonstrate here that giving a GnRH agonist after procarbazine injection also enhances spermatogenesis and fertility. We also demonstrate that GnRH agonist stimulated recovery of spermatogenesis and fertility not only when the hormone was administered immediately after irradiation, but also at 20 weeks after irradiation, after the decline in spermatogenesis had occurred. These results suggest that GnRH agonist treatment given to azoospermic men after cytotoxic therapy for cancer may stimulate the recovery of spermatogenesis and fertility. (+info)
High-dose BEAM chemotherapy with autologous haemopoietic stem cell transplantation for Hodgkin's disease is unlikely to be associated with a major increased risk of secondary MDS/AML.
Hodgkin's disease is curable in the majority of patients, although a proportion of patients are resistant to or relapse after initial therapy. High-dose therapy with autologous stem cell support has become the standard salvage therapy for patients failing chemotherapy, but there have been reports of a high incidence of myelodysplasia/acute myeloid leukaemia (MDS/AML) following such treatment. Patients who receive such therapy form a selected group, however, who have already been subjected to other leukaemogenic factors, such as treatment with alkylating agents. In order to ascertain the true risk of MDS/AML, comparison must be made with other patients subjected to the same risks but not undergoing transplantation. We report a retrospective comparative study of 4576 patients with Hodgkin's disease from the BNLI and UCLH Hodgkin's databases, which includes 595 patients who have received a transplant. Statistical analysis including Cox's proportional hazards multivariate regression model with time-dependent covariates was employed. This analysis reveals that the risk of developing MDS/AML was dominated by three factors, namely quantity of prior therapy (relative risk [RR] 2.01, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.49-2.71, for each treatment block, P < 0.0001) and whether the patient had been exposed to MOPP (RR 3.61, 95% CI 1.64-7.95, P = 0.0009) or lomustine chemotherapy (RR 4.53, 95% CI 1.96-10.44, P = 0.001). Following adjustment for these factors in the multivariate model the relative risk associated with transplantation was 1.83 (95% CI 0.66-5.11, P = 0.25). This study provides no evidence of a significantly increased risk of MDS/AML associated with BEAM therapy and autologous transplantation in Hodgkin's disease. Concern over MDS/AML should not mitigate against the timely use of this treatment modality. (+info)
Procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy for anaplastic astrocytoma: A retrospective review of radiation therapy oncology group protocols comparing survival with carmustine or PCV adjuvant chemotherapy.
PURPOSE: To determine any differences in outcome for patients with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) treated with adjuvant carmustine (BCNU) versus procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) database was reviewed for patients with newly diagnosed AA treated according to protocols that included either BCNU or PCV adjuvant chemotherapy. All patients were treated with radiation therapy. The outcome analysis included overall survival, taking into account patient age, extent of resection, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), and treatment group (BCNU v PCV). Stratified and nonstratified Cox proportional hazards models were used, as well as an analysis using matched cases between the groups. RESULTS: A total of 257 patients were treated with BCNU according to RTOG protocols 70-18, 83-02, and 90-06; 175 patients were treated with PCV according to RTOG protocol 94-04. All pretreatment characteristics except KPS were well balanced by treatment group; 61% of the BCNU group had a KPS of 90 to 100 compared with 73% of the PCV group (P =.0075). No statistically significant difference in survival was observed in any age group or by KPS or extent of surgery. The stratified analysis also showed no trends for improved survival by treatment group (P =. 40). The Cox model identified only age, KPS, and extent of surgery as important variables influencing survival, not treatment group. Matching cases between groups using age, KPS, and surgery resulted in 133 matched pairs. No difference in survival was observed (P =. 41). In a Cox model in which each matched pair is a strata, there was no difference between groups (P =.20). CONCLUSION: Using this retrospective analysis, there does not seem to be any survival benefit to PCV chemotherapy. Future phase III studies for patients with AA may need to consider whether BCNU or PCV is used in the control arm. (+info)