Acetylcholine and epibatidine binding to muscle acetylcholine receptors distinguish between concerted and uncoupled models.
The muscle acetylcholine receptor (AChR) has served as a prototype for understanding allosteric mechanisms of neurotransmitter-gated ion channels. The phenomenon of cooperative agonist binding is described by the model of Monod et al. (Monod, J., Wyman, J., and Changeux, J. P. (1965) J. Mol. Biol. 12, 88-118; MWC model), which requires concerted switching of the two binding sites between low and high affinity states. The present study examines binding of acetylcholine (ACh) and epibatidine, agonists with opposite selectivity for the two binding sites of mouse muscle AChRs. We expressed either fetal or adult AChRs in 293 HEK cells and measured agonist binding by competition against the initial rate of 125I-alpha-bungarotoxin binding. We fit predictions of the MWC model to epibatidine and ACh binding data simultaneously, taking as constants previously determined parameters for agonist binding and channel gating steps, and varying the agonist-independent parameters. We find that the MWC model describes the apparent dissociation constants for both agonists but predicts Hill coefficients that are far too steep. An Uncoupled model, which relaxes the requirement of concerted state transitions, accurately describes binding of both ACh and epibatidine and provides parameters for agonist-independent steps consistent with known aspects of AChR function. (+info)
Biotransformation of the tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in freshly isolated human lung cells.
Metabolism of the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) was characterized in human lung cells isolated from peripheral lung specimens obtained from 12 subjects during clinically indicated lobectomy. NNK biotransformation was assessed in preparations of isolated unseparated cells (cell digest), as well as in preparations enriched in alveolar type II cells, and alveolar macrophages. Metabolite formation was expressed as a percentage of the total recovered radioactivity from [5-(3)H]NNK and its metabolites per 10(6) cells per 24 h. 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) was the major metabolite formed in all lung cell preparations examined, and its formation ranged from 0.50 to 13%/10(6) cells/24 h. Formation of alpha-carbon hydroxylation end-point metabolites (bioactivation) and pyridine N-oxidation metabolites (detoxification), ranged from non-detectable to 0.60% and from non-detectable to 1.5%/10(6) cells/24 h, respectively, reflecting a large degree of intercellular and inter-individual variability in NNK metabolism. Formation of the alpha-hydroxylation end-point metabolite 4-hydroxy-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (diol) was consistently higher in alveolar type II cells than in cell digest or alveolar macrophages (0.0146 +/- 0.0152, 0.0027 +/- 0.0037 and 0.0047 +/- 0.0063%/10(6) cells/24 h, respectively; n = 12; P < 0.05). SKF-525A was used to examine cytochrome P450 contributions to the biotransformation of NNK. SKF-525A inhibited keto reduction of NNK to NNAL by 85, 86 and 74% in cell digest, type II cells, and macrophages, respectively (means of 11 subjects, P < 0.05). Type II cell incubates treated with SKF-525A formed significantly lower amounts of total alpha-hydroxylation metabolites compared with type II cells without SKF-525A (0.0776 +/- 0.0841 versus 0.1694 +/- 0. 2148%/10(6) cells/24 h, respectively; n = 11; P < 0.05). The results of this first study examining NNK biotransformation in freshly isolated human lung cells indicate that NNK metabolism is subject to a large degree of inter-individual and intercellular variability, and suggest a role for P450s in human lung cell NNK metabolism. Both alveolar type II cells and alveolar macrophages may be potential target cells for NNK toxicity based on their alpha-carbon hydroxylation capabilities. In addition, carbonyl reduction of NNK to NNAL is SKF-525A sensitive in human lung cells. (+info)
Degradation of an alkaloid pheromone from the pale-brown chafer, Phyllopertha diversa (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), by an insect olfactory cytochrome P450.
The pale-brown chafer, Phyllopertha diversa, utilizes an unusual alkaloid, 1,3-dimethyl-2,4-(1H,3H)-quinazolinedione, as its sex pheromone. This compound is rapidly degraded in vitro by the antennal protein extracts from this scarab beetle. Demethylation at the N-1 position and hydroxylation of the aromatic ring have been identified as the major catabolic pathways. The enzyme responsible for the pheromone degradation is membrane-bound, requires NAD(P)H for activity and is sensitive to cytochrome P450 inhibitors, such as proadifen and metyrapone. The ability to metabolize this unusual pheromone was not detected in 12 species tested, indicating that the P450 system, specific to male P. diversa antennae, has evolved as a mechanism for olfactory signal inactivation. (+info)
Use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the determination of methadone and its main metabolite, EDDP, in plasma by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
A simple, rapid method for the determination of methadone and its metabolite 2-ethylene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) in plasma using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is proposed. A 100-microm polydimethylsiloxane film fiber was exposed by immersion for 30 min in a diluted plasma solution (1:4 with buffer pH 9) containing both compounds and an internal standard (proadifen). Calibration curves were linear over the concentration range 50-2000 ng/mL. The analysis time was 45 min per sample. The determination of methadone and EDDP was subject to no interference. The performance of SPME was compared with that of liquid-liquid extraction, obtaining lower limits of detection for EDDP. The method using the two extraction procedures was applied to 10 plasma samples from methadone-treated patients. (+info)
The effect of temperature on desensitization kinetics at the post-synaptic membrane of the frog muscle fibre.
1. The time course of acetylcholine (ACh) potentials during development of desensitization was prolonged when a double-barrel ACh pipette was used for evoking desensitization. When a single-barrel ACh pipette was used, no change in the time course of ACh potential was to be seen during desensitization. 2. The recovery after desensitization did not depend on the rate of onset or on its level when a single ACh pipette was used. The half-time of recovery had a constant value of about 5.8 sec in the presence of chlorpromazine or SKF-525 A in a muscle bath at 22 degrees C. 3. Unlike the rate of onset, recovery from desensitization does not depend on the membrane potential. 4. The rate of onset of desensitization, i.e. time taken for reduction of ACh potentials to half-way between the initial amplitude and final steady value, decreased when temperature of the muscle bath was lowered. 5. Q10 of desensitization onset was found to be 1.5 for a change of temperature from 32 to 22 degrees C, 1.9 from 22 to 12 degrees C, 2.6 from 12 to 5 degrees C and 3.3 from 12 to 2 degrees C. 6. A similar temperature effect was observed in the case of desensitization recovery, the Q10 being 1.2 for temperature changes from 32 to 22 degrees C, 1.3 from 22 to 12 degrees C and 2.36 from 12 to 2 degrees C. 7. Intracellular application of quaternary methiodide of SKF-525 A or chloropromazine caused more rapid desensitization by ACh. The rate of desensitization onset depends on the ACh dose and on the frequency of application. The rate of recovery, however, has a constant value with a half-time of 5.5-5.7 sec at 22 degrees C. 8. Both the rate of onset and the rate of recovery changed with temperature in the case of intracellular potentiation of desensitization, in a similar manner to that observed after extracellular application of these drugs. 9. The onset of desensitization can thus be influenced by different substances as well as by changes in temperature. Recovery apparently has a different mechanism from the onset, because its time course can be altered only by changes in temperature of the muscle. (+info)
Metabolism of sameridine to monocarboxylated products by hepatocytes isolated from the male rat.
The metabolism of sameridine (LPB) (an amide-type local anesthetic-analgesic agent with a hexyl side chain) to carboxylic acid derivatives by isolated male rat hepatocytes was studied using gradient reversed-phase HPLC and mass spectrometry. Incubation of sameridine with hepatocytes resulted in the formation of numerous different metabolites. Two carboxylic acids, i.e., the C(6) and C(4) carboxylated derivatives of sameridine (LPB-6'-oic acid and LPB-4'-oic acid), were found to be produced from the intermediate omega-hydroxy metabolite (6'-hydroxy-LPB). Shortening of the alkyl chain in LPB-6'-oic acid by two carbon atoms resulted in LPB-4'-oic acid. However, incubation of rat hepatocytes with 5'-hydroxy-LPB [the (omega-1)-hydroxy derivative of sameridine] did not give rise to any carboxylated derivative. Addition of SKF525A inhibited the metabolism of sameridine by rat hepatocytes, indicating that the initial step is catalyzed by cytochrome P450. Furthermore, the metabolism of sameridine to LPB-4'-oic acid was enhanced in hepatocytes isolated from rats treated with clofibrate, an up-regulator of peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation and of microsomal cytochrome P450 4A. L-Carnitine (which increases the rate of mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation) had no effect on the level of LPB-4'-oic acid produced by isolated rat hepatocytes. The metabolism of 6'-hydroxy-LPB to LPB-6'-oic acid was inhibited almost completely by 4-methylpyrazole, an inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase. Considered together, our findings suggest that cytochrome P450 4A, cytosolic dehydrogenases, and the enzymes involved in peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation catalyze the metabolism of sameridine to LPB-4'-oic acid. (+info)
Factors affecting metabolism and mutagenicity of dimethylnitrosamine and diethylnitrosamine.
For exploration of the factors affecting dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) mutagenicity, for gathering of information on the metabolism of DMN, a frequently used and relatively well-understood carcinogen, and for explanation of metabolic variations in DMN carcinogenicity, parallel in vitro assays of the microsomal activation of DMN to a mutagen and of DMN demethylation were performed. Salmonella typhimurium G46 reversions to histidine independence increase linearly with time of incubation for 30 min. At low concentrations of microsomal protein, increases in protein yield a more than proportional increase in mutations. Increasing DMN concentration saturates the enzyme, yielding less demethylation and fewer mutations proportionately. Mutagenesis is completely inhibited by 1 mM 2-diethyl-aminoethyl-2,2-diphenylvalerate. When both DMN and microsomal protein are varied at high concentrations, there is a simple linear relationship between mutagenicity and DMN demethylase activity. Thus DMN demethylase activity may be the primary controlling factor in the metabolism of DMN to a mutagen, and probably to a carcinogen; other simultaneous pathways of DMN metabolism proportional to demethylation have not been ruled out. Induction with both phenobarbital and 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) increased rat and mouse liver DMN demethylase activity. Mouse liver microsomes from the C57BL/6 strain demethylate DMN at a markedly lower rate than do microsomes from the C3H strain, but after 3-MC induction the relationship is reversed. Strain differences in activation of DMN were not found in the activation of diethylnitrosamine to a mutagen. Hepatic dealkylation of DMN and diethylnitrosamine to active mutagenic metabolites is increased in both rats and mice by both 3-MC and phenobarbital induction, which is in contrast to the findings of others that 3-MC and phenobarbital induction, which is in contrast to the findings of others that 3-MC decreases the incidence of DMN-induced hepatic tumors in rats, and phenobarbital decreases the incidence of diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatic tumors in mice. (+info)
Pharmacological evaluation of the role of cytochrome P450 in intracellular calcium signalling in rat pancreatic acinar cells.
We have investigated whether the cytochrome P450 system is involved in Ca(2+) signalling in rat pancreatic acinar cells. Intracellular free [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)](i)) was measured in collagenase-isolated cells using fura-2 microspectrofluorimetry and imaging. The imidazole P450 inhibitor ketoconazole (5 - 50 microM) inhibited [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations induced by cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK). However, ketoconazole also raised baseline [Ca(2+)](i) when applied in the absence of CCK. These effects were mimicked by 5 - 50 microM SKF96365, an imidazole widely used as an inhibitor of Ca(2+) entry. The non-imidazole P450 inhibitor proadifen (SKF525A) inhibited CCK-induced [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations at a concentration of 10 - 50 microM. Proadifen alone caused intracellular Ca(2+) release at 25 or 50 microM, but not at 10 microM. Octadecynoic acid and 1-aminobenzotriazole, structurally-unrelated non-imidazole P450 inhibitors, did not alter baseline [Ca(2+)](i) or CCK-evoked oscillations. We compared cumulative CCK dose-response relationship in control cells and in cells where P450 had been induced by prior injection of animals with beta-naphthoflavone. Only minor differences were apparent, with induced cells showing some decrease in responsiveness at moderate and higher concentration of CCK (30 pM - 3 nM). Direct assessment of depletion-activated Ca(2+) entry showed no clear differences between control and induced cells. In conclusion, we could find no compelling evidence for a role of P450 in controlling Ca(2+) signalling generally, or Ca(2+) entry in particular, in pancreatic acinar cells. Induction of P450 is therefore probably toxic to acinar cells via a Ca(2+)-independent mechanism. (+info)