Digital photography of digital imaging and communications in medicine-3 images from computers in the radiologist's office.
To fully take advantage of the widespread use of digital imaging systems and to update and eliminate redundant steps involved in medical radiographic publication, we present our experience of processing Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM)-3 digital images from the point of acquisition to the point of publisher-ready radiographic images without intervening hardcopies. (+info)
Exposure to toluene in the printing industry is associated with subfecundity in women but not in men.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the possible influence of exposure to toluene on human fertility. METHODS: In a cross sectional study, a sample of 150 male and 90 female printing industry workers were interviewed retrospectively on reproductive experience with a modified version of the European study of infertility and subfecundity questionnaire. Exposure categories comprised job descriptions and information on exposure measurements obtained by industrial hygienists. The fecundability ratio (FR) was estimated on the basis of time to pregnancy (TTP) or periods of unprotected intercourse not leading to pregnancy (PUNP) by means of survival analysis with proportional hazard models. Confounders such as age, ethnicity, smoking, parity, pelvic inflammatory diseases, and frequency of sexual intercourse were controlled for in the analyses. RESULTS: 256 Periods of TTP or PUNP were reported by men and 174 by women. After exclusion of induced abortions, birth control failures, and periods without employment for female workers we were able to analyse 169 periods in men and 100 periods in women. Male workers who had been exposed to different concentrations of toluene and their partners did not show a reduction in fecundity. In women (39 periods occurred during exposure) fecundity was reduced (FR 0.47, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.29 to 0.77). Neither, restriction to only the first period nor exclusion of PUNPs changed the results (FR 0.48, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.97). CONCLUSION: After considering possible biases, low daily exposure to toluene in women seems to be associated with reduced fecundity. This result is in accordance with other findings for organic solvents and supports both the hypotheses that (a) organic solvents could affect hormonal regulation, and that (b) organic solvents increase early fetal losses which in turn contributes to longer times of unprotected intercourse. (+info)
Exposure to organic solvents in the offset printing industry in Norway.
The purpose of this study was to document the conditions regarding solvent exposure at offset printing offices in Norway at present and to study the variation of exposure between printing office technologies. Measurements were made at seven offset printing offices. The measurements consisted of five to 10 whole day personal exposure measurements at each office performed over a period of 2 months. Variables that may influence the level of exposure were registered by the occupational hygienist at the end of each measuring day using a check list. The influence of the variables on the "additive factor" was examined by linear regression analysis.The main contributor to the "additive factor" was isopropanol. The exposure to isopropanol sometimes exceeded the Norwegian TLV. The exposure decreased when a separate exhaust ventilation was used. The exposure increased when the machine had automatic cleaning. The variables automatic cleaning and separate exhaust ventilation explained 59% of the variation in the "additive factor". The results of this study indicate that the most important source of solvent exposure in printing offices at present is the moisturizer used in the printing machines. We think it is worth giving attention to this exposure and making efforts to reduce it. (+info)
Visual function and subjective quality of life compared in subjects with acquired macular disease.
PURPOSE: To determine the objective measures of visual function that are most relevant to subjective quality of vision and perceived reading ability in patients with acquired macular disease. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients with macular disease underwent a comprehensive assessment of visual function. The patients also completed a vision-related quality-of-life questionnaire that included a section of general questions about perceived visual performance and a section with specific questions on reading. RESULTS: Results of all tests of vision correlated highly with reported vision-related quality-of-life impairment. Low-contrast tests explained most of the variance in self-reported problems with reading. Text-reading speed correlated highly with overall concern about vision. CONCLUSIONS: Reading performance is strongly associated with vision-related quality of life. High-contrast distance acuity is not the only relevant measure of visual function in relation to the perceived visual performance of a patient with macular disease. The results suggest the importance of print contrast, even over print size, in reading performance in patients with acquired macular disease. (+info)
Computed radiography printing problems: a quantitative, observer-independent solution.
Even though facilities using computed radiography (CR) operate in an electronic environment, the production of hard-copy films is still necessary during the transition period, as well as for particular needs following complete implementation. We have implemented a quantitative technique to match the response of printed CR film with that of previous screen/film combinations. A stepwedge is radiographed using the conventional system. The same stepwedge is then radiographed (same geometry and technique) using the CR system. Following processing and printing, the plot of optical density versus step for the CR system is compared with that of the screen/film system. Adjustments are made to the printing parameters until the response curves are identical. All other translation tables in the system are set to be linear. This has proven to be a valuable technique for us and provides CR printed image quality that is equivalent to that of our previous screen/film combinations. (+info)
Array of hope for gene technology.
A Washington-based bioinformatics company is developing sophisticated DNA microarrays that should help researchers measure and analyze gene expression faster, more economically, and with greater precision than ever before possible. The FlexJet system, as the microarray product is known, uses inkjet technology to propel microscopic strands of DNA nucleotides onto slides, "printing" arrays of DNA molecules in a process not unlike the manner in which a printer deposits ink onto paper, forming distinct patterns of characters and images. Microarray technology may revolutionize the field of toxicogenomics by helping scientists target new drugs, discover gene function, determine biologic pathways, and better understand diseases such as cancer, cystic fibrosis, and cardiovascular disease at the molecular level. (+info)
Incidence of cancer among bookbinders, printers, photoengravers, and typesetters.
OBJECTIVES: To to study the risk of cancer, particularly of lung cancer and bladder cancer, among workers in the printing industry according to different occupations. METHODS: This is a population based retrospective cohort study. The cohort comprised 1332 men and 426 women employed in the printing industry in Iceland according to a published union registry. A computerised file of the cohort was record linked to the Cancer Registry by making use of personal identification numbers. Expected numbers of cases of cancer were calculated on the basis of number of person-years and specific incidences of cancer sites for men and women provided by the Cancer Registry. RESULTS: Among the men (36 217.5 person-years at risk) there were 125 observed cancers versus 123.66 expected, standardised incidence ratio (SIR) 1.01, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was 0.84 to 1.20. The SIR (95% CI) for liver cancer was 1.97 (0.55 to 5.20) and the SIR for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was 2.26 (0.96 to 4.41). No excess risk for cancer was found among women (8631.0 person-years at risk). The SIR (95% CI) for liver cancer was 4.21 (0.47 to 15.20) and for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma it was 4.99 (1.61 to 11.63) among the typesetters. A survey on smoking habits among active and retired union members showed that they smoked less than a random sample of the general population. CONCLUSION: The cancer site most often reported to show excess risk among printing industry workers has been the lung and the urinary bladder; however, this was not found in the present study. This may be explained by difference in smoking habits among union members compared with the general population. There is a high occurrence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, particularly among typesetters, which warrants further studies. (+info)
Robot printing of reverse dot blot arrays for human mutation detection.
We report on a generally useful, partially automated, human mutation detection method based upon printing moderate density oligonucleotide arrays using a biorobot on activated nylon membranes. The Beckman Biomek 2000 was adapted to this task through fabrication of aluminum membrane filter holders and the development of an addressable Tool Command Language (Tcl) program, which can be invoked through BioScript. During program execution, a robot arm is moved along the x, y, and z axes to expel liquid, without dripping, from disposable barrier pipette tips and then to touch the drops on preactivated membranes. Printed arrays consist of alternating rows of oligonucleotides containing normal and mutant sequences. Hybridization of biotin labeled polymerase chain reaction products derived from human patient genomic DNA samples are visualized using chemiluminescent or chromogenic indicators. This technique allows unequivocal genotyping of 32 mutations at the beta-thalassemia locus (11p15.5) and of 34 mutations and one polymorphism at the cystic fibrosis transconductance membrane regulator locus (7p35). (+info)