Blood recipient notification for hepatitis C in Prince Edward Island.
BACKGROUND: Two of the major risk factors for hepatitis C are injection drug use and receipt of blood or blood products. Many patients are unaware that they have received transfusions. In 1998 Prince Edward Island conducted a province-wide look-back notification program to notify patients who had received transfusions in PEI between Jan. 1, 1984, and June 1, 1990. The authors present the results of the notification program. METHODS: A registry for recipients of blood and blood products was created from the province's Red Cross blood bank records. The registry data were linked with Vital Statistics data to determine death status and with Health Registration data to determine residence status of recipients (in PEI or moved out of province). All identified recipients with a current PEI mailing address were sent a letter recommending hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing. Laboratory records were checked to determine HCV test results. RESULTS: The registry contained data for 6086 recipients of blood or blood products during the look-back period; 51.1% (3109/6086) had died by the time of notification. Of the remainder, 18.4% (549/2977) were not directly notified because they had moved out of province, had refused delivery of the notification letter or had died recently, or because identifying information was missing from the blood bank records. Of the recipients who were notified 80.4% (1953/2428) underwent testing, and 2.2% (43/1953) were found to be HCV positive. Most of these (58.1% [25/43]) had undergone testing before notification. The HCV positivity rate differed significantly between recipients tested before notification and those tested after notification (9.9% v. 1.1%, p < 0.001). HCV-positive recipients were more likely than other notified recipients to have had multiple transfusions (39.5% v. 9.5%, p < 0.001). INTERPRETATION: Before notification 4.1% of PEI recipients had undergone HCV testing. After notification 91.2% of PEI recipients were identified as tested, dead or moved out of province. The notification program resulted in the identification of the majority of PEI's transfusion-related cases of hepatitis C. (+info)
A survey of demographics and information demands of dairy producers.
Survey responses from 75 randomly selected dairy producers on Prince Edward Island were summarized to obtain a demographic picture of the dairy industry in this province and to determine information management practices and demands for the future. The results indicate a preparedness for dairy production in the future. (+info)
Successful euthanasia of a juvenile fin whale.
A stranded juvenile fin whale was successfully euthanized with an intravenous injection of sedative and cardioplegic drugs. Veterinarians may face a number of serious difficulties if called to perform this task, and advance preparation is required for successful euthanasia of these animals. (+info)
Estimated prevalence of Aerococcus viridans and Anophryoides haemophila in American lobsters Homarus americanus freshly captured in the waters of Prince Edward Island, Canada.
The Canadian lobster industry holds lobsters Homarus americanus in captivity for various periods to supply markets with live product year-round. Mortality during holding results in considerable losses, estimated at 10 to 15 % yr(-1) by the industry. This study examined the prevalence of Anophryoides haemophila and Aerococcus viridans, causative agents of 'bumper car' disease and gaffkemia, respectively, in lobsters freshly captured in the waters of Prince Edward Island during the spring and fall fishing seasons of 1997. A total of 116 lobsters were sampled in the spring, and 138 in the fall. A. haemophila was not detected in the spring, while the prevalence was 0.72 % in the fall with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.02 to 3.97% and an overall prevalence of 0.39% (95% CI: 0.01 to 2.17%). The prevalence of A. viridans was estimated at 6.9% (95% CI: 3.0 to 13.14%) in the spring, 5.8% in the fall (95% CI: 2.54 to 11.10%), and 6.30% overall (95% CI: 3.64 to 10.03%). Because of the reduced interest in food of diseased lobsters, and compromised metabolism in the case of gaffkemia, these prevalence estimates are likely underestimates of the true prevalence of gaffkemia and 'bumper car' disease in the wild populations of lobster around Prince Edward Island. (+info)
Ethylene glycol toxicosis in a free-ranging raccoon (Procyon lotor) from Prince Edward Island.
A juvenile free-ranging raccoon (Procyon lotor) was presented for acute onset of abnormal mentation and seizures. Ethylene glycol toxicosis was diagnosed on postmortem examination. This report highlights the importance of including ethylene glycol toxicosis on the list of differential diagnoses for abnormal mentation and seizures in free-ranging raccoons. (+info)
Lungworm (Crenosoma vulpis) infection in dogs on Prince Edward Island.
Crenosoma vulpis is a nematode lungworm that is highly prevalent in the red fox population of Atlantic Canada. Dogs are susceptible to infection with clinical signs consisting primarily of a chronic cough. A recent report of C. vulpis infection in 3 dogs on Prince Edward Island prompted an investigation into the importance of this parasite as a cause of chronic respiratory disease in Island dogs. A general prevalence was determined through the necropsy of dogs euthanized at the local humane society. Lungs were removed and examined for parasites using a lung flush technique. Rectal feces was collected and examined for first-stage larvae using the Baermann technique and zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation. Ten of 310 dogs (3.2%) were positive with 0-35 worms (mean = 11.0 +/- 13.4) recovered. First-stage larvae of C. vulpis were recovered in the rectal feces of the one animal in which no worms were recovered on lung flush. A second survey was conducted examining fecal samples with the Baermann technique from afebrile dogs with presenting signs of chronic cough that had no history of recent anthelmintic treatment and showed no signs of cardiac disease, based on physical examination. Fifteen of 55 dogs examined (27.3%) were definitively diagnosed as C. vulpis-positive. All of the infected dogs were treated with fenbendazole (50 mg/kg body weight, p.o. q24 h for 3-7 days). Clinical signs resolved in all of the dogs and fecal samples were negative 2-4 weeks posttreatment. It was concluded that C. vulpis infection was a significant cause of upper respiratory disease in dogs on Prince Edward Island and should be considered in all dogs with presenting signs of chronic cough. (+info)
A bulk tank milk survey of Ostertagia ostertagi antibodies in dairy herds in Prince Edward Island and their relationship with herd management factors and milk yield.
The objective of this study was to quantify the relationship of the levels of antibodies to Ostertagia ostertagi in bulk-tank milk samples from Prince Edward Island (PEI) dairy farms to milk production and to herd-management practices potentially related to gastrointestinal nematode infections. The milk samples were obtained from 289 to 322 dairy farms during 2000; production and management data were available from 197 and 200 farms, respectively. Cow exposure to pasture and whole-herd anthelmintic treatment were the only herd management variables significantly associated with antibody levels in the fall of 2000. An increase in antibody levels from the observed 25th percentile to the 75th percentile (interquartile range) was associated with a drop in milk production of 1.2 kg/cow/day. The results of this study indicate that the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for O. ostertagi antibody is a potentially useful technique to measure parasite exposure in adult dairy cows and that parasite burdens in lactating cattle in PEI have an important impact on milk production. (+info)
A trap, neuter, and release program for feral cats on Prince Edward Island.
A new program to address the feral cat population on Prince Edward Island was undertaken during the spring and summer of 2001. Feral cats from specific geographic areas were trapped, sedated, and tested for feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus. Healthy cats were neutered, dewermed, vaccinated, tattooed, and released to their area of origin. A total of 185 cats and kittens were trapped and tested during a 14-week period; 158 cats and kittens as young as 6 weeks of age were neutered and released. Twenty-three adult cats were positive for feline leukemia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus, or both, and were euthanized. (+info)