(1/532) Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for agnogenic myeloid metaplasia: a European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Societe Francaise de Greffe de Moelle, Gruppo Italiano per il Trapianto del Midollo Osseo, and Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center Collaborative Study.
Agnogenic myeloid metaplasia (AMM) is a chronic myeloproliferative disorder in which patients with poor prognostic features, receiving conventional treatments, have a median survival of less than 3 years. In this retrospective multicenter study, we analyze the results and try to define the indications for allogeneic stem cell transplantation in AMM. From January 1979 to November 1997, 55 patients with a median age of 42 years were transplanted from HLA-matched related (n = 49) or alternative (n = 6) donors for AMM. A multivariate analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with posttransplant outcome. The median posttransplant follow-up was 36 months (range, 6 to 223). The 5-year probability of survival was 47% +/- 8% for the overall group, and 54% +/- 8% for patients receiving an unmanipulated HLA-matched related transplant. The 1-year probability of transplant-related mortality was 27% +/- 6%. Hemoglobin level =100 g/L and osteomyelosclerosis before transplant adversely affected the outcome. The probability of developing grade III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 33% +/- 8%. Sixteen of 45 patients developed extensive chronic GVHD. At last follow-up, 22 patients were in complete histohematologic remission. Treatment failure was observed in 13 cases. Age at transplant and karyotype were predictors of treatment failure. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is an effective treatment leading to cure in a substantial number of patients with AMM. A better characterization of the variables affecting the posttransplant outcome should lead to a decreased transplant-related mortality and an improvement in these results. (+info)
(2/532) Jugular vein thrombosis: a rare presentation of atypical chronic myeloproliferative disorder in a young woman.
Venous thromboembolism is common in subjects with chronic myeloproliferative disorders and is a recognized presenting feature of occult myeloproliferation. We report the case of a young woman who presented with acute thrombosis in the right jugular vein and pulmonary embolism. Splenomegaly and myeloid proliferation with bone marrow fibrosis, in the absence of the criteria for typical myeloproliferative disorders, allowed a diagnosis of an atypical form of chronic myeloproliferative disorder. This form carries a high risk of thrombosis and venous thromboembolism can be the presenting feature, though the course is often indolent. Acute thrombosis in the right jugular vein has not been so far described in these subjects. The outcome of young people with myelofibrosis is unpredictable, but a normal level of hemoglobin and the absence of blast cells and constitutional symptoms at presentation identifies subjects with a low probability of rapid disease progression. (+info)
(3/532) Dibromomannitol in the treatment of chronic granulocytic leukemia: a prospective randomized comparison with busulfan.
Dibromomannitol (DBM) is a new agent for the treatment of chronic granulocytic leukemia. A propsective evaluation of the drug was undertaken in a randomized comparison with busulfan. Forty previously untreated, Philadelphia chromosome-positive cases were treated, with 20 patients in each treatment group. The protocol provided for continuous maintenance therapy after remission induction, with a crossover to the opposite drug in patients who became refractory to the primary agent but are without evidence of blastic tranformation. There were 14 remissions in the DBM group and 15 in those treated with busulfan. The rate of decrease of the elevated leukocyte count was more rapid with DBM, but prolonged disease control off treatment occurred in only three of 14 cases as opposed to nine of fifteen busulfan-treated patients who required a median delay of 12 mo before maintenance could be initiated. Hypoplasia occurred in one DBM patient and two busulfan cases. Following recovery, crossover to the opposite drug in two cases again resulted in hypopllasia. Increased skin pigmentation, amenorrhea, pulmonary fibrosis, and cytologic dysplasia, commonly associated with busulfan adminstration, were also noted with DBM. The median duration of disease control with busulfan was 34 mo and 26 mo with DBM. There was no signigicant difference in the incidence of blastic transformation, and median survival for both groups was 44 mo. DBM appears to be as effective as busulfan in the treatment of the chronic phase of CGL but with a more predictable myelosuppressive action. The principal advantage of busulfan over DBM is the fact that more than half the busulfan-treated patients experienced prolonged disease control off treatment. (+info)
(4/532) Myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia: diagnostic definition and prognostic classification for clinical studies and treatment guidelines.
PURPOSE: Myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MMM) is a chronic myeloproliferative disorder characterized by bone marrow fibrosis and extramedullary hematopoiesis. Recent studies provide definite diagnostic criteria and prognostic classifications of the disease, and allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (SCT) now offers a chance of curing the disease. In order to put diagnostic criteria and prognostic classifications of the disease into the perspective of developing guidelines for treatment strategies, all studies published in the English literature over the last 30 years were reviewed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Studies were identified through a MEDLINE search (1966 to present) and from the bibliographies of relevant articles. RESULTS: The Italian Consensus Conference on diagnostic criteria is a structured enterprise aimed at formulating a definition of MMM that will be used for enrolling patients onto clinical studies. It relies on the obligatory presence of myelofibrosis and on the exclusion of the BCR-ABL rearrangement or Philadelphia chromosome, in association with combinations of traditional features. Prognostic scores allow us to identify classes of patients on the basis of hemoglobin, age, WBC count, and chromosomal abnormalities. Several nonrandomized studies have indicated that allogeneic SCT for patients under the age of 55 is effective in prolonging survival in more than 50% of cases and in possibly curing the disease. Patients with the most severe prognosis are candidates. CONCLUSION: "Consensus" methodology offers a definition of MMM useful for conducting and reporting clinical studies. A detailed knowledge of prognostic factors can help to delineate guidelines for addressing patients with allogeneic SCT. (+info)
(5/532) Splenic myeloid metaplasia, histiocytosis, and hypersplenism in the dog (65 cases).
Splenectomy specimens from 65 dogs with severe, diffuse, sustained, and progressive splenomegaly were examined. The clinical signs, hematology, and serum chemistry values in for the dogs were not useful diagnostic features. Microscopic changes in the spleens were distinctive and consisted of 1) myeloid metaplasia, 2) histiocytosis, 3) erythrophagocytosis, and 4) thrombosis with segmental infarction. Ultrastructural features suggested proliferative changes in the splenic reticular cells and macrophages (reticular meshwork) that described a continuum from reactive changes associated with immunologic damage of erythrocytes to neoplastic proliferation of histiocytic components. Thirty percent of the dogs survived 12 months. Approximately one half (53%) of the dogs with complete postmortem evaluations showed multiorgan involvement with a tissue distribution and cell morphology consistent with histiocytic neoplasia. For the remaining dogs (47%), only splenic pathology was consistently present, and a specific cause of death was often not evident. Distinctive histologic changes in the splenic tissues-including mitotic activity, erythrophagocytosis, giant cell formation, thrombosis/ infarction, and the proportion and distribution of histiocytic and hematopoietic cells-were statistically evaluated for prognostic relevance. The presence of giant cells was the only reliable prognostic feature, and that was indicative of a fatal outcome. These descriptive changes of myeloid metaplasia in the canine spleen are compared with the human clinical and pathologic syndromes of 1) agnogenic myeloid metaplasia, 2) hemophagocytic syndromes, and 3) hypersplenism. These diseases in humans produce histopathologic changes in the spleen that are similar to those observed in the canine splenic tissue we examined in this study. (+info)
(6/532) Neutrophil alkaline phosphatase score in chronic granulocytic leukaemia: effects of splenectomy and antileukaemic drugs.
Staining with naphthol AS phosphate and Fast Blue BB salt has been used for the estimation of neutrophil alkaline phosphatase (NAP) scores in patients with chronic granulocytic leukaemia (CGL). The very low scores found at diagnosis rise when the disease is treated, and there is some inverse correlation between the NAP score and the absolute neutrophil count. Patients treated intensively developed high NAP scores. Elective splenectomy performed during the chronic phase of CGL is followed by a pronounced but transient neutrophilia and a concurrent striking rise in the NAP score. Similar changes were observed in patients without CGL who underwent splenectomy. These observations can be explained by assuming that newly formed neutrophils in CGL have a normal content of NAP but are rapidly sequestered in non-circulating extramedullary pools, whereas the circulating neutrophil with a typically low NAP content is a relatively aged cell which has lost enzyme activity. In subjects with or without CGL, removal of the spleen, a major site of such pooling, temporarily permits the circulation of newly formed neutrophils but eventually other organs assume the sequestering functions of the spleen. Thus the aberrations of NAP score seen in CGL might be attributable not to an intrinsic cellular defect but to an exaggeration of the granulocyte storage phenomena which also occur in subjects without CGL. (+info)
(7/532) Myeloproliferative disorders.
Forty-three operative procedures were performed on a population of 250 patients with myeloproliferative disorders, including polycythemia vera, myeloid metaplasia (MM) and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). The overall operative mortality was approximately 7% and the incidence of excessive bleeding which could be related to coagulopathy was 5%. Twenty-one patients with MM or CML underwent splenectomy for palliation of symptoms related to the enlarged spleen or hematologic problems. Eighty-four percent of the latter group were improved. Adverse hematologic effects which could be attributed to splenectomy in these patients were confined to two patients who developed marked thrombocytosis. Among the 23 patients with MM, 9 had portal hypertension. Three underwent portacaval shunt and one a splenorenal shunt for bleeding varices. One of the patients died of hepatic necrosis. Estimated hepatic blood flow determinations (EHBF) in 4 patients with portal hypertension demonstrated a marked absolute increase and an increase in the ratio of EHBF/Cardiac Index. Absence of any evidence of intrahepatic or extrahepatic obstruction in these patients and the demonstration that splenectomy relieved portal hypertension defined at surgery in 4 patients, suggests that augmented adhepatic flow contributes to portal hypertension in some cases. The review leads to the conclusions that: 1) Operative procedures in prepared patients with myeloproliferative disorders are not associated with prohibitive mortality and morbidity rates. 2) Splenectomy is indicated for patients with increasing transfusion requirements and symptomatic splenomegaly or hypersplenism and should be performed early in the course of disease. 3) When associated portal hypertension and bleeding varices are present, hemodynamic studies should be carried out to define if splenectomy alone, or a portal systemic decompressive procedure is indicated. (+info)
(8/532) Allogeneic peripheral blood cell transplantation for hypereosinophilic syndrome with myelofibrosis.
Patients with hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) display a very heterogeneous clinical picture ranging from asymptomatic cases to very aggressive forms. We report a 38-year-old woman with progressive HES who developed severe myelofibrosis and was treated by allogeneic stem cell transplantation, using peripheral blood (PBSCT) instead of bone marrow as the source of progenitor cells, after conditioning with cytoxan and busulphan. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of HES with myelofibrosis treated with PBSCT. The patient remains alive 8 months post-PBSCT, and bone marrow fibrosis has significantly decreased following transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplantation (2000) 25, 217-218. (+info)