Use of PCR and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis techniques for differentiation of Prevotella intermedia sensu stricto and Prevotella nigrescens.
Primers were designed from 16S rRNA sequences of Prevotella intermedia sensu stricto and Prevotella nigrescens and were used to discriminate these two species by PCR. The results were compared with those from the PCR technique using primers designed from arbitrarily primed PCR products by Guillot and Mouton (E. Guillot and C. Mouton, J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:1876-1882, 1997). The specificities of both assays were studied by using P. intermedia ATCC 25611, P. nigrescens ATCC 33563, 174 clinical isolates of P. intermedia sensu lato, and 59 reference strains and 58 clinical isolates of other Prevotella species and/or common oral flora. In addition, the usefulness and reliability of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) in the differentiation of the two species were examined by comparing the results with those from PCR assays. The controversial lipase test for distinguishing these species was also carried out. Unambiguous differentiation was made by both PCR assays, and the results matched each other. The SDS-PAGE assay was found to misidentify a few strains tested, compared with the results of PCR assays. The lipase test was positive for both species, including the reference strains of P. intermedia and P. nigrescens. We conclude that both PCR assays are simple, rapid, reliable, and specific methods which could be used in clinical studies and that the lipase test is not valuable in the differentiation. The reliable discrimination of the two species by SDS-PAGE is questionable. (+info)
Modulation of antibacterial peptide activity by products of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella spp.
This study investigated the ability of anaerobic periodontal bacteria to inactivate and resist killing by antimicrobial peptides through production of extracellular proteases. Antibacterial activities of peptides were assessed in a double-layer agarose diffusion assay, and MICs and MBCs were determined in broth microdilution assays. Culture supernates of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella spp. inactivated mastoparan, magainin II and cecropin B whilst Gram-positive oral supragingival bacteria had no effect. Inactivation was prevented by protease inhibitors and was unaffected by 45% human serum. Purified proteases from the periodontopathogen Porph. gingivalis inactivated peptides [cecropin B, brevinin, CAMEL (cecropin A 1-7 + melittin 2-9), mastoparan] as would be predicted from the amino acid sequences of the peptides and the known bond specificities of these Arg-x and Lys-x enzymes. MALDI-TOF MS revealed that inactivation of cecropin B by Porph. gingivalis protease was due to specific cleavage of the molecule. Inactivation of cecropin B by proteases took 10-15 min. Paradoxically, MICs of cecropin B against Porph. gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia were low, while Prevotella nigrescens was resistant, suggesting that production of proteases alone is insufficient to protect Porph. gingivalis and Prev. intermedia from the action of antimicrobial peptides. Thus, antimicrobial peptides could be developed as therapeutic agents targeted against specific periodontal pathogens. (+info)
Bovine polymorphonuclear neutrophil-mediated phagocytosis and an immunoglobulin G2 protease produced by Porphyromonas levii.
Acute interdigital phlegmon (AIP) is a commonly occurring anaerobic bacterial infection in cattle. This study examined in vitro the interaction of bovine polymorphonuclear granulocytic neutrophils (PMN) from blood with bacterial species involved in AIP. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils were purified from whole bovine blood, exposed to one of the three putative etiologic agents of AIP and comparatively assessed for phagocytosis using light microscopy. Fusobacterium necrophorum and Prevotella intermedia were effectively phagocytosed by PMN, but Porphyromonas levii was phagocytosed significantly less effectively by PMN. The effect of high titre anti-P. levii bovine serum on antibody-mediated phagocytosis by PMN was also evaluated. High titre serum increased the efficiency of phagocytosis of P. levii by bovine PMN. This was independent of heat labile complement factors. Antibodies specific for P. levii were assessed for protease activity capable of cleaving bovine immunoglobulins (IgG, IgG1, IgG2, and IgM). Partially purified supernatant from broth cultures of P. levii were incubated with biotinylated immunoglobulins (Igs). Samples were taken from times 0 to 72 h and examined using SDS-PAGE followed by Western blot analysis. Streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase and NBT-BCIP were used to visualize the Igs for heavy and light chains as well as lower molecular weight fragments of these glycoproteins. Porphyromonas levii produced an immunoglobulin protease which readily cleaved bovine IgG into fragments, but did not act against IgM. Specifically, the enzyme may be a significant virulence factor as it may act to neutralize the antibodies demonstrated necessary for effective PMN-mediated phagocytosis. (+info)
Microbiology of retroperitoneal abscesses in children.
Samples of pus from 41 children with retroperitoneal abscess treated between 1974 and 1994 yielded a total of 125 organisms (3.0 isolates/specimen); 58 isolates were aerobic and facultative species (1.4/specimen) and 67 were anaerobic (1.6/specimen). Aerobic bacteria only were isolated from 7 (17%) abscesses, anaerobic bacteria only from 3 (7%) and mixed aerobic and anaerobic bacteria from 31 (76%); 34 (83%) infections were polymicrobial. The predominant aerobic and facultative isolates were Escherichia coli (19 isolates) and Staphylococcus aureus (6), and the predominant anaerobes were Peptostreptococcus spp. (18 isolates), Bacteroides spp. (22) and Prevotella spp. (5). (+info)
Incidence of Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens carriage among family members with subclinical periodontal disease.
We established a typing system for Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens using the combination of PCR ribotyping and arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) fingerprinting and applied this system to the study of intrafamilial incidence of these species in the oral cavity. PCR ribotyping followed by subtyping by AP-PCR fingerprinting was applied to each type strain of P. intermedia and P. nigrescens and 54 isolates (32 isolates of P. intermedia and 24 isolates of P. nigrescens) from extraoral infections, resulting in an excellent discriminatory power (discrimination index, 0.99) for both species. A total of 18 subjects from six families, with the subjects from each family comprising the mother, the father, and a child who had subclinical early-stage to moderate adult periodontitis or simple gingivitis and who carried P. intermedia or P. nigrescens, or both, were enrolled in the study of intrafamilial carriage. When 20 colonies per specimen of subgingival plaque, if available, were picked from primary culture, 115 P. intermedia and 178 P. nigrescens isolates were recovered from the 18 subjects. Among the subjects studied, family members shared the same subtype strain(s) but non-family members did not. Multiple subtypes were found in 8 (57%) of the 14 P. nigrescens-positive subjects but in only 3 (27%) of the 11 P. intermedia-positive subjects; the difference was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.14). These results suggest that the combination of PCR ribotyping and AP-PCR fingerprinting is well suited for the epidemiological study of P. intermedia and P. nigrescens and that each family seems to carry a distinct subtype(s) of these species. (+info)
Direct detection of Prevotella intermedia and P. nigrescens in suppurative oral infection by amplification of 16S rRNA gene.
A specific 16S rDNA PCR and subsequent hybridisation reaction was designed to discriminate between strains of Prevotella intermedia (n = 15) and P. nigrescens (n = 15). This technique was then used to detect the presence of these two bacterial species in acute suppurative oral infection. A total of 36 pus samples aspirated from 26 peri-apical abscesses, three root canals, three periodontal abscesses, two cases of refractory periodontitis, one cyst and one haematoma was examined. A portion of the pus sample was processed by PCR and the remainder of the specimen was subjected to routine culture. The PCR-based technique gave an identical pattern of detection of P. intermedia or P. nigrescens to that obtained by culture for 30 of the 36 specimens. Either P. intermedia or P. nigrescens was present in 14 samples and neither species was detected in 16 samples. In the remaining six samples the PCR method indicated the presence of one (n = 3) or both (n = 3) of the Prevotella species but neither or only one species was isolated by culture. It is concluded that the presence of P. intermedia and P. nigrescens in pus can be detected rapidly and specifically by direct PCR amplification of 16S rDNA. P. nigrescens was detected more frequently than P. intermedia in suppurative peri-apical infection both by culture and PCR. (+info)
Selection of a highly monensin-resistant Prevotella bryantii subpopulation with altered outer membrane characteristics.
Prevotella bryantii cultures treated with monensin grew more slowly than untreated cultures, but only if the monensin concentration was greater than 1 microM. Cultures that were repeatedly transferred (eight transfers or 25 doublings) with monensin always grew rapidly, even at a 10 microM concentration. The amount of monensin needed to facilitate half-maximal potassium depletion (K(d)) from monensin-selected cells was 16-fold greater than "unadapted" wild-type cultures (3,200 versus 200 nM). Cells taken from continuous culture had a K(d) of 100 nM, and these inocula could not grow in batch culture when the monensin concentration was greater than 300 nM. Continuous cultures treated with monensin nearly washed out, but the surviving cells had a K(d) of 1,300 nM. When wild-type cells were transferred in batch culture with 10 microM monensin, the K(d) did not reach its maximum value (3,200 nM) until after eight transfers (25 doublings). K(d) declined when monensin was removed, and it took eight transfers to reach the control value (200 nM). The most probable number of wild-type cells was 1,000-fold lower than of the monensin-selected cells, but calculations based on relative growth advantage and K(d) indicated that the wild-type culture had 1 to 10% highly monensin-resistant cells. Cell pellets of wild-type cultures were more difficult to disperse than were monensin-selected cells, and water-soluble phenol extracts of monensin-selected cells had 1.8-fold more anthrone-reactive material than did the wild type. Wild-type cultures that were washed in Tris buffer (pH 8.0) released little alkaline phosphatase and were agglutinated by lysozyme. Monensin-selected cultures leaked ninefold more alkaline phosphatase and were not agglutinated by lysozyme. Wild-type colonies taken from high-dilution agar roll tubes retained the lysozyme agglutination phenotype even if transferred with monensin, and monensin-selected colonies were never agglutinated. These observations indicated that wild-type P. bryantii cultures had a subpopulation with different outer membrane characteristics and increased monensin resistance. (+info)
Increase of CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase IV expression on human gingival fibroblasts upon stimulation with cytokines and bacterial components.
CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) is a cell surface ectoenzyme which participates in immune and inflammatory reactions. We found that CD26 was only partially expressed on human fibroblasts from periodontal tissues, whereas fibroblasts from lung and skin expressed CD26 constitutively as revealed by flow cytometry. We examined the possible upregulation of CD26 expression on human gingival fibroblasts in response to various stimulants. Interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha); tumor necrosis factor alpha; gamma interferon; lipopolysaccharide from Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Escherichia coli; and Prevotella glycoprotein augmented CD26 expression on gingival fibroblasts. Among the stimulants, IL-1alpha exhibited the most potent activity. Enzymatic activity of CD26 induced by IL-1alpha on fibroblasts was determined colorimetrically in terms of Gly-Pro hydrolysis of a synthetic chromogenic substrate, Gly-Pro p-nitroanilide. Among various inhibitors tested, diprotin A and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride inhibited the enzymatic activity, suggesting that the enzyme induced by IL-1alpha was DPPIV. The upregulation of CD26 mRNA expression upon stimulation with IL-1alpha was also revealed by a quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assay. In the kinetic experiment, 48 h and several days were required for maximum CD26 mRNA accumulation and CD26 molecule expression on the cell surface, respectively. The addition of cycloheximide at 2 h before IL-1alpha stimulation almost completely inhibited the accumulation of CD26 mRNA. These results suggested that induction of CD26 on human gingival fibroblasts is regulated at the transcriptional level and is also dependent on a de novo-synthesized protein factor(s). (+info)