Nursing home characteristics and the development of pressure sores and disruptive behaviour.
OBJECTIVE: To determine how nursing home characteristics affect pressure sores and disruptive behaviour. METHOD: Residents (n = 5518, aged > or =60 years) were selected from 70 nursing homes in the National Health Care chain. Homes were classified as high- or low-risk based on incidence tertiles of pressure sores or disruptive behaviour (1989-90). Point-prevalence and cumulative incidence of pressure sores and disruptive behaviour were examined along with other functional and service variables. RESULTS: The overall incidence of pressure sores was 11.4% and the relative risk was 4.3 times greater in high- than low-risk homes; for disruptive behaviour, the incidence was 27% and the relative risk was 7.1 times greater in the high-risk group. At baseline, fewer subjects in homes with a high risk of pressure sores were white or in restraints, but more had received physician visits monthly and had had problems with transfers and eating. High-risk homes also had fewer beds and used less non-licensed nursing staff time. At follow-up (1987-90), 52% of homes in the low-risk group and 35% of those in the high-risk group had maintained their risk status; low-risk homes were more likely to have rehabilitation and maintenance activities. Having multiple clinical risk factors was associated with more pressure sores in high- (but not low-) risk homes, suggesting a care-burden threshold. By logistic regression, the best predictor of pressure sores was a home's prior (1987-88) incidence status. Interestingly, 67% of homes with a high risk of pressure sores were also high-risk for disruptive behaviour, while only 27% of homes with a low risk of pressure sores were high-risk for disruptive behaviour. A threshold effect was also observed between multiple risk factors and behaviour. More homes with a high risk of disruptive behaviour (68%) remained at risk over 4 years, and the best predictor of outcome was a home's previous morbidity level. CONCLUSION: Nursing-home characteristics may have a greater impact than clinical factors on pressure sores and disruptive behaviour in long-stay, institutionalized elders. (+info)
Risk factors for erysipelas of the leg (cellulitis): case-control study.
OBJECTIVE: To assess risk factors for erysipelas of the leg (cellulitis). DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: 7 hospital centres in France. SUBJECTS: 167 patients admitted to hospital for erysipelas of the leg and 294 controls. RESULTS: In multivariate analysis, a disruption of the cutaneous barrier (leg ulcer, wound, fissurated toe-web intertrigo, pressure ulcer, or leg dermatosis) (odds ratio 23.8, 95% confidence interval 10.7 to 52.5), lymphoedema (71.2, 5.6 to 908), venous insufficiency (2.9, 1.0 to 8.7), leg oedema (2.5, 1.2 to 5.1) and being overweight (2.0, 1.1 to 3.7) were independently associated with erysipelas of the leg. No association was observed with diabetes, alcohol, or smoking. Population attributable risk for toe-web intertrigo was 61%. CONCLUSION: This first case-control study highlights the major role of local risk factors (mainly lymphoedema and site of entry) in erysipelas of the leg. From a public health perspective, detecting and treating toe-web intertrigo should be evaluated in the secondary prevention of erysipelas of the leg. (+info)
Butorphanol tartrate acts to decrease sow activity, which could lead to reduced pig crushing.
The objective of this study was to determine whether administration of an analgesic to sows immediately after farrowing would allow them to lie more restfully. Sows lying on their pigs, causing them to be "crushed," is a major cause of pig mortality. Most deaths due to crushing occur during the first 3 d postpartum. For modern, lean-type sows, farrowing crates are relatively hard and unforgiving, even though they may be equipped with plastic-coated, expanded metal flooring. Indeed, many sows develop pressure sores on their shoulders, and this may contribute to the sows' discomfort. These sores may cause a sow to change position frequently to alleviate pain, thus increasing its chances of crushing pigs. Sixteen production sows were assigned to either a control group (C, n = 8) with litter size 11.71+/-.78 or an experimental group (B, n = 8) with litter size 11.63+/-1.22. Pigs born to C and B sows weighed 1.60+/-.04 and 1.37+/-.04 kg, respectively. The C sows were given no treatment, whereas the B sows were administered an i.m. injection of butorphanol tartrate at a dose of .15 mg/kg BW every 6 h until 3 d after farrowing. Data were collected on all sows using time-lapse photography (1 frame/.4 s) for a 3-d duration upon the initiation of farrowing. To assess the degree of comfort of each sow, body position changes were recorded when sows switched between lying, sitting, and standing. Data were analyzed by 12-h periods using Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney equations. During the 72-h period, B sows tended to perform fewer position changes than C sows (P = .10). Specifically, position changes were fewer for B sows from 48 to 72 h postpartum (P<.06). There were no differences in position changes between treatments from 0 to 48 h postpartum (P>.50). There was no difference in the rate of crushing between treatments (C = 5, B = 5). The butorphanol did not seem to affect pig activity or normal behaviors or to create adverse effects, such as diarrhea. Although the sows given butorphanol showed a reduced number of position changes, the dose was intermediate, and a higher dose may have a greater effect. If pig mortality can be decreased, an analgesic protocol that is simple to administer and readily available to producers can be developed. Alternatively, using of more pliable flooring or an increase in sow body fat may allow sows to lie more stationary. (+info)
The Dutch pressure sore assessment score or the Norton scale for identifying at-risk nursing home patients?
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the usefulness of a Dutch pressure sore risk assessment scale--the Centraal Begeleidingsorgaan voor de Intercollegiale Toetsing (CBO; National Organization for Quality Assurance in Hospitals) score--in the detection of patients at risk of developing pressure sores after admission to a nursing home. As the Norton score is the standard method of risk assessment, we also investigated which score (Norton or CBO) has the stronger relationship to the development of pressure sores. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort design. PATIENTS: 220 nursing home patients, 80 men, 140 women, mean age 79 years (standard deviation 3). MEASURES: Admission assessments for the presence of pressure sores, CBO and Norton scores, preventive measures and demographic characteristics. We made observations every week for 4 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Presence or absence of pressure sores. MAIN RESULTS: 54 patients (25%) developed a pressure sore. A significant, nonlinear relationship was found between the CBO score on admission and the development of pressure ulcers for the first 2 weeks after admission. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that only mobility (odds ratio = 3.6, P = 0.0001) and mental state (odds ratio = 2.0, P = 0.03) showed a significant relationship with the development of pressure ulcers. The CBO score was no better in risk assessment than the Norton score. CONCLUSIONS: The CBO score can be used for assessment of the risk of developing pressure ulcers in the first 2 weeks after admission to a nursing home, but is no better than the Norton score. Since the Norton score is easier to use, it is slightly preferable for use in this setting. However, neither score is a good indicator of patients at risk. Physicians should not depend solely on risk scores when prescribing preventive measures. (+info)
The limits of pressure sore prevention.
Pressure sore prevalence and incidence were assessed in 275 patients who were admitted to a well-staffed internal medicine ward during a 12-month study period or who were present on day 1. Pressure sore risk was assessed by use of the Braden scale and patients scoring 16 or less were provided with intensive preventive care. During the study period 5.1% (95% confidence interval 2.7-7.8) of 275 patients had pressure sores (prevalence) and 4.4% (1.9-6.9) developed sores (incidence). None of the 239 patients who were assessed as not being at risk developed a sore. 36 patients were assessed as being at risk at some time during the study and 12 of these developed sores despite receiving high-quality preventive care. The results suggest that not all pressure sores can be prevented in severely ill patients. We believe that the 4.4% incidence of sores in this study approaches the current limit of prevention. (+info)
Sequential cytokine therapy for pressure ulcers: clinical and mechanistic response.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the healing response of sequential topically applied cytokines to that of each cytokine alone and to a placebo in pressure ulcers, and to evaluate the molecular and cellular responses. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Because of a deficiency of cytokine growth factors in chronic wounds and the reversal of impaired healing in animal models, pressure ulcer trials have been performed with several exogenously applied growth factors. Because single-factor therapy has not been uniformly successful, combination or sequential cytokine therapy has been proposed. Laboratory data have suggested that sequential treatment with granulocyte-macrophage/colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)/basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) might augment the previously reported effect of bFGF alone. METHODS: A masked, randomized pressure ulcer trial was performed comparing sequential GM-CSF/bFGF therapy with that of each cytokine alone and with placebo during a 35-day period. The primary measure was wound volume decrease over time. Cytokine wound levels and mRNA levels were serially determined. Fibroblast-populated collagen lattices (FPCLs) were constructed from serial fibroblast biopsies. Cellular ultrastructure was evaluated by electron microscopy. Changes in ease of surgical closure and its relative cost were determined. RESULTS: Ulcers treated with cytokines had greater closure than those in placebo-treated patients. Patients treated with bFGF alone did the best, followed by the GM-CSF/bFGF group. Patients treated with GM-CSF or bFGF had higher levels of their respective cytokine after treatment. Patients with the greatest amount of healing showed higher levels of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) on day 10 and transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta1) on day 36. Message for the bFGF gene was upregulated after treatment with exogenous bFGF, suggesting autoinduction of the cytokine. FPCLs did not mimic the wound responses. Ultrastructure of wound biopsies showed response to bFGF. Treatment with any of the cytokines improved the wound by allowing easier wound closure. This was most marked for the bFGF-alone treatment, with a cost savings of $9,000 to $9,200. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with bFGF resulted in significantly greater healing than the other treatments in this trial. The clinical response appeared to be related to upregulation of the bFGF message and to increased levels of PDGF-AB, bFGF, and TGFbeta1 in the wounds and changes in ultrastructure. The resultant improvements could be correlated with cost savings. (+info)
An open comparative randomised study comparing the performance of hydrocolloid dressings (DuoDERM CGF) to saline gauze dressings in the treatment of pressure ulcers was done to evaluate the overall dressing performance, wound healing and cost effectiveness. Thirty-four subjects were enrolled at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur over a 643 days period. Inclusion criteria were Stage II or III pressure ulcers, at least 18 years of age and written informed consent. Only one pressure ulcer per subject was enrolled in the study. Patients with infected pressure ulcers, diabetes mellitus, an immuno-compromised status and known sensitivity to the study dressings were excluded. Subjects who met the enrollment criteria were randomised to one of the two dressing regimes. They were expected to participate in the study for a maximum of eight weeks or until the pressure ulcer healed, which ever occurred first. Overall subject age averaged 58 years and the mean duration of pressure ulcer existence was about 1 month. Twenty-one of the thirty-four ulcers enrolled were stage II and thirteen were stage III. The majority of the ulcers (88%) were located in the sacral area and seventeen subjects (50%) were incontinent. In the evaluation of dressing performance in terms of adherence to wound bed, exudate handling ability, overall comfort and pain during dressing removal; all favoured the hydrocolloid dressing by a statistically significant margin (p < 0.001). Subjects assigned the hydrocolloid dressing experienced a mean 34% reduction from their baseline surface area measurement compared to a mean 9% increase by subjects assigned gauze dressings. This was not statistically significant (p = 0.2318). In cost evaluation of the study products, there was no statistical significance in the total cost of wound management per subject. When only labour time and cost was evaluated, there was a statistically significant advantage towards hydrocolloid dressings. (+info)
Pressure sores among malnourished necropsied adults--preliminary data.
Pressure sores are common among bedridden, elderly, or malnourished patients, and may occur in terminal ill patients because of impaired mobility, fecal or urinary incontinence, and decreased healing capacity. The aim of this study was to compare frequency of pressure sores between malnourished and non-malnourished necropsied adults. METHOD: All (n = 201) adults (age >/= 18 years) autopsied between 1986 and 1996 at the Teaching Hospital of Triangulo Mineiro Medical School (Uberaba) were eligible for the study. Gender, race, weight, height and main diagnoses were recorded. Ninety-six cases were excluded because of probable body water retention (congestive heart failure, hepatic insufficiency, nephrotic syndrome) or pressure sores secondary to peripheral vascular ischemia. Body mass index (BMI) was used to define malnourished (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) and non-malnourished (BMI > 18.5kg/m2) groups. RESULTS: Except for weight (42.5kg; range: 28-57 vs. 60; 36-134.5kg) and BMI (16.9; range: 12.4-18.5 vs. 22.7; range: 18.5-54.6kg/m2), respectively, there were no statistical differences among 43 malnourished and 62 non-malnourished cases in relation to age (54.9 +/- 20.4 vs. 52.9 +/- 17.9 years), percentage of white persons (74.4 vs. 64.5%), male gender (76.7 vs. 69.3%) and main diagnoses. Five malnourished (11. 6%) and 7 (11.5%) non-malnourished cases had pressure sores (p=0.89). CONCLUSION: Pressure sores were equally common findings in necropsied persons with protein-energy malnutrition, as assessed by body mass index. (+info)