Effects of benzalkonium chloride on growth and survival of Chang conjunctival cells.
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the action of benzalkonium chloride (BAC), used as a preservative in most ophthalmic topical solutions, on epithelial conjunctival cells in vitro. METHODS: A continuous human conjunctival cell line (Wong-Kilbourne derivative of Chang conjunctiva) was exposed to BAC solutions at various concentrations (0.1%-0.0001%) during a period of 10 minutes. Cells were examined before treatment and 3, 24, 48, and 72 hours later, after reexposure to normal cell culture conditions. Cell number and viability were assessed with crystal violet and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide colorimetric assays. The expression of the apoptotic marker Apo 2.7, nuclear antigen p53, membrane proteins Fas and Fas ligand, and DNA content was studied by flow cytometry. Morphologic aspects of cell nuclei were analyzed on slides with a nucleic acid-specific dye, 4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride. Cytoskeleton was labeled with a monoclonal anti-pancytokeratin antibody. In addition, apoptosis was measured by DNA electrophoresis assays in agarose gel. RESULTS: Cell exposure to 0.1% and 0.05% BAC induced cell lysis immediately after treatment. All cells (100%) treated with 0.01% BAC died in a delayed manner within 24 hours, with most of the characteristics of apoptosis (chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation, reduction in cell volume, expression of the apoptotic marker Apo 2.7, and apoptotic changes in DNA content). Aliquots of 0.005%, 0.001%, 0.0005%, and 0.0001% BAC induced growth arrest and apoptotic cell death in a dose-dependent manner between 24 and 72 hours after treatment. The expressions of Fas and p53 did not vary after BAC treatment. Fas ligand was always negative. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that BAC induces cell growth arrest and death at a concentration as low as 0.0001%. The mode of BAC-induced cell death is dose-dependent. Cells die by necrosis after BAC treatment at high concentrations and by apoptosis if low concentrations of BAC are applied. This new aspect of in vitro toxicity of BAC could in part explain some ocular surface disorders observed in patients undergoing long-term topical treatments with preservative-containing drugs. (+info)
4-chloro-m-cresol triggers malignant hyperthermia in susceptible swine at doses greatly exceeding those found in drug preparations.
BACKGROUND: Chlorocresols are used as preservatives in numerous commercial drugs that have been shown to induce myoplasmic Ca2+ release; the most potent isoform is 4-chloro-m-cresol. The aims of this study were to (1) examine the in vivo effects of 4-chloro-m-cresol on swine susceptible to malignant hyperthermia and (2) contrast in vivo versus in vitro dose-response curves. METHODS: Susceptible swine (weight: 38.5 kg+/-3.55 kg) were anesthetized and monitored for variations in physiological responses, including end-tidal CO2, heart rate, blood pressure, blood chemistry, and temperatures. In the first animals studied, 4-chloro-m-cresol, at equivalent cumulative doses of 0.14, 0.28, 0.57, 1.14, 2.27, 4.54, and 9.08 mg/kg (n = 3; 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 micromol) were administered, and in a second group, larger doses were used: 1.14, 3.41, 7.95, 17.04 (n = 4), and/or 35.22 (n = 1) mg/kg (100, 300, 700, 1,500, and/or 3,100 micromol). For comparison, in vitro rectus abdominis muscle preparations obtained from normal and susceptible swine were exposed to 4-chloro-m-cresol, at cumulative concentrations of 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1,600 micromol; standard caffeine and halothane contracture testing was also performed. RESULTS: Episodes of malignant hyperthermia were not triggered in response to administration of low doses of 4-chloro-m-cresol, but transient cardiovascular reactions (e.g., tachycardia, arrhythmias, and hypotension) were observed. Subsequently, episodes in these animals were triggered when halothane (0.87; 1 MAC) and succinylcholine (2 mg/kg) were given. Animals administered the higher doses of 4-chloro-m-cresol all had fulminant episodes of malignant hyperthermia that were fatal, when equivalent cumulative concentrations were greater than 1,500 micromol. The levels of 4-chloro-m-cresol in the plasma rapidly decreased: e.g., 5 min postadministration of the 1,500-micromol dose, the mean plasma level was only 52+/-18 micromol (n = 4). Hemolysis was detected following 4-chloro-m-cresol administration at concentrations > 200 micromol. In vitro, muscle from susceptible animals elicited contractures > 200 mg at 50-micromol bath concentrations of 4-chloro-m-cresol (n = 29), whereas normal muscle did not elicit such contractures until bath concentrations were > 800 micromol (n = 10). CONCLUSIONS: 4-chloro-m-cresol is a trigger of malignant hyperthermia in susceptible swine, but only when serum concentrations are far above those likely to be encountered in humans. A relatively low concentration of 4-chloro-m-cresol, 50 micromol, is sufficient to activate sarcoplasmic [Ca+2] release in vitro (e.g., contractures); this same bolus dose administered in vivo (0.57 mg/kg) has minimal effects due to the rapid decrease in its plasma levels. (+info)
4-chloro-m-cresol is a trigger of malignant hyperthermia in susceptible swine.
BACKGROUND: 4-Chloro-m-cresol (4-CmC) induces marked contractures in skeletal muscle specimens from individuals susceptible to malignant hyperthermia (MHS). In contrast, 4-CmC induces only small contractures in specimens from normal (MHN) patients. 4-CmC is a preservative within a large number of commercially available drug-preparations (e.g., insulin, heparin, succinylcholine), and it has been suggested that 4-CmC might trigger malignant hyperthermia. This study was designed to investigate the effects of 4-CmC in vivo and in vitro in the same animals. METHODS: After approval of the animal care committee, six Pietrain MHS and six control (MHN) swine were anesthetized with azaperone 4 mg/kg intramuscularly and metomidate 10 mg/kg intraperitoneally. After endotracheal intubation, lungs were mechanically ventilated (inspired oxygen fraction 0.3) and anesthesia was maintained with etomidate 2.5 mg x kg(-1) x h(-1) and fentanyl 50 microg x kg(-1) x h(-1). Animals were surgically prepared with arterial and central venous catheters for measurement of hemodynamic parameters and to obtain blood samples. Before exposure to 4-CmC in vivo, muscle specimens were excised for in vitro contracture tests with 4-CmC in concentrations of 75 and 200 microM. Subsequently, pigs were exposed to cumulative administration of 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 mg/kg 4-CmC intravenously. If an unequivocal episode of malignant hyperthermia occurred, as indicated by venous carbon dioxide concentration > or = 70 mmHg, pH < or = 7.25, and an increase of temperature > or = 2 degrees C, the animals were treated with dantrolene, 3.5 mg/kg. RESULTS: All MHS swine developed malignant hyperthermia after administration of 4-CmC in doses of 12 or 24 mg/kg. Venous carbon dioxide concentration significantly increased and pH significantly decreased. Temperature increased in all MHS animals more than 2 degrees C. Blood lactate concentrations and creatine kinase levels were significantly elevated. All MHS swine were treated successfully with dantrolene. In contrast, no MHN swine developed signs of malignant hyperthermia. After receiving 4-CmC in a concentration of 48 mg/kg, however, all MHN animals died by ventricular fibrillation. The in vitro experiments showed that both concentrations of 4-CmC produced significantly greater contractures in MHS than in MHN specimens. CONCLUSIONS: 4-CmC is in vivo a trigger of malignant hyperthermia in swine. However, the 4-CmC doses required for induction of malignant hyperthermia were between 12 and 24 mg/kg, which is about 150-fold higher than the 4-CmC concentrations within clinically used preparations. (+info)
The effect of specimen processing delay on borate urine preservation.
AIM: To investigate the effect on urine culture results and their clinical interpretation of delaying the processing of urine samples in which boric acid had been used as a preservative. METHODS: 792 mid-stream specimens of urine from patients attending their general practitioner were received in borate containing plastic jars. The specimens were cultured upon receipt, stored at room temperature, and then recultured the following morning. RESULTS: After overnight delayed culture, the results were altered in 16% of samples and the clinical interpretation of these findings differed in 8% of specimens. In 28 samples (3.5%) the bacterium isolated on initial culture was not the same as that obtained by culture after overnight storage. CONCLUSIONS: Boric acid urine preservation used for overnight delayed processing of samples is associated with a significant alteration in culture results and the attendant clinical interpretation of such specimens. Rapid transportation/processing of urine specimens must remain the optimum procedure. (+info)
Thimerosal in vaccines: a joint statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Public Health Service.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Modernization Act of 1997 called for FDA to review and assess the risk of all mercury-containing food and drugs. In line with this review, U.S. vaccine manufacturers responded to a December 1998 and April 1999 FDA request to provide more detailed information about the thimerosal content of their preparations that include this compound as a preservative. Thimerosal has been used as an additive to biologics and vaccines since the 1930s because it is very effective in killing bacteria used in several vaccines and in preventing bacterial contamination, particularly in opened multidose containers. Some but not all of the vaccines recommended routinely for children in the United States contain thimerosal. (+info)
Recommendations regarding the use of vaccines that contain thimerosal as a preservative.
On October 20, 1999, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) reviewed information about thimerosal in vaccines and received updates from CDC's National Immunization Program and several vaccine manufacturers on the current and anticipated availability of vaccines that do not contain thimerosal as a preservative. The review was prompted by a joint statement about thimerosal issued July 8, 1999, by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the Public Health Service (PHS) (1) and a comparable statement released by the American Academy of Family Physicians (2). These statements followed a Congressionally mandated Food and Drug Administration (FDA) review of mercury in drugs and food, which included a reassessment of the use of thimerosal in vaccines. (+info)
A new ELISA kit for measuring urinary 2-hydroxyestrone, 16alpha-hydroxyestrone, and their ratio: reproducibility, validity, and assay performance after freeze-thaw cycling and preservation by boric acid.
There is considerable controversy regarding the role of estrogen metabolites in breast cancer risk, fueled in part by the development of a rapid ELISA that is suitable for large scale investigations. An earlier version of the ELISA could detect values of the 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1) and 16alpha-hydroxyestrone (16alpha-OHE1) metabolites as low as 2 ng/ml and produce consistent results in premenopausal urines. However, reproducibility was problematic in postmenopausal urines where concentrations of these compounds are much lower. In response to our concern, a new ELISA was developed with a sensitivity of 0.625 ng/ml, which we evaluated using the same pre- and postmenopausal urine samples analyzed in the earlier ELISA. In this report, we present findings on the new kit with regard to reproducibility of the 2-OHE1 and 16alpha-OHE1 measurements, comparability of results with gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy values, and with regard to the stability of the metabolites after repeated freeze-thaw cycles and after preservation by boric acid. For the most part, we found the new ELISA to be reproducible, with assay coefficients of variation ranging from 10 to 20%, and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) ranging from 80 to 95% in both the pre- and postmenopausal urines. ELISA results for 16alpha-OHE1 differed from 1 day (i.e., batch) to the next, and the absolute values of the metabolites obtained by the ELISA were consistently lower than but well correlated with those obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Values of the 2-OHE1:16alpha-OHE1 ratio also differed between the methods, but because the range of values was not large, the magnitude of these differences was not as great. For the ratio, the correlation between methods was excellent, and the ICCs were high for both groups of women. After preservation by boric acid, values of the ratio varied according to acid concentration but not in a linear fashion. Ratio values were similar in urine samples exposed to four different freeze-thaw cycle treatments, although values for all treatments were consistently lower in one batch. Because batch-to-batch variability was not negligible, it is advisable that matched cases and controls be analyzed in the same batch. Provided this is done, the relatively low assay coefficient of variation and high ICC demonstrate that the new ELISA kit can reliably measure the 2-OHE1:16alpha-OHE1 ratio and detect small case-control differences in large population-based studies, where rapid and relatively easy laboratory methods are critical. (+info)
Using of thin-layer chromatography for identification and quantitative determination of benzalkonium chloride in eye drops.
Conditions for thin-layer chromatographic separation of components (therapeutic and auxiliary substances) in selected eye drops have been established and next used for the densitometric determination of benzalkonium chloride content in the drugs. (+info)