(1/461) Karyotyping of human oocytes by chromosomal analysis of the second polar bodies.

This paper describes a method for obtaining metaphase chromosomes from human second polar bodies. The second polar body nucleus was injected into the cytoplasm of an enucleated oocyte, which is activated shortly after injection. When the polar body nucleus is transformed into a haploid pronucleus, treatment with okadaic acid was used to induce premature chromosome condensation. A total of 25 analysable chromosome plates were obtained from 38 polar bodies karyotyped using this technique. Whole chromosome painting was used to detect second polar bodies (and respectively, oocytes) with unbalanced translocations. In combination with the first polar body analysis, this technique may be useful in preimplantation genetic diagnosis for patients carrying maternal translocations.  (+info)

(2/461) Preimplantation diagnosis by fluorescence in situ hybridization using 13-, 16-, 18-, 21-, 22-, X-, and Y-chromosome probes.

PURPOSE: Our purpose was to select the proper chromosomes for preimplantation diagnosis based on aneuploidy distribution in abortuses and to carry out a feasibility study of preimplantation diagnosis for embryos using multiple-probe fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on the selected chromosomes of biopsied blastomeres. METHODS: After determining the frequency distribution of aneuploidy found in abortuses, seven chromosomes were selected for FISH probes. Blastomeres were obtained from 33 abnormal or excess embryos. The chromosome complements of both the biopsied blastomeres and the remaining sibling blastomeres in each embryo were determined by FISH and compared to evaluate their preimplantation diagnostic potential. RESULTS: Chromosomes (16, 22, X, Y) and (13, 18, 21) were selected on the basis of the high aneuploid prevalence in abortuses for the former group and the presence of trisomy in the newborn for the latter. Thirty-six (72%) of 50 blastomeres gave signals to permit a diagnosis. Diagnoses made from biopsied blastomeres were consistent with the diagnoses made from the remaining sibling blastomeres in 18 embryos. In only 2 of 20 cases did the biopsied blastomere diagnosis and the embryo diagnosis not match. CONCLUSIONS: If FISH of biopsied blastomere was successful, a preimplantation diagnosis could be made with 10% error. When a combination of chromosome-13, -16, -18, -21, -22, -X, and -Y probes was used, up to 65% of the embryos destined to be aborted could be detected.  (+info)

(3/461) Prevention of age-related aneuploidies by polar body testing of oocytes.

PURPOSE: We previously demonstrated that aneuploidy-free oocytes may be preselected by testing the first and second polar bodies removed from oocytes following their maturation and fertilization. The present paper describes the results of the application of the method in 659 in vitro fertilization cycles from patients of advanced maternal age. METHODS: Using micromanipulation techniques, 3943 oocytes were tested by polar body sampling and fluorescent on situ hybridization analysis using specific probes for chromosomes 13, 18, and 21. RESULTS: Fluorescent in situ hybridization results were available for 3217 (81.6%) of 3943 oocytes studied, of which 1388 (43.1%) had aneuploidies; 35.7% of the aneuploidies were of first meiotic division origin, and 26.1% of second meiotic division origin. Most errors in the first meiotic division were represented by chromatid malsegregation. The transfer of embryos deriving from 1558 of 1829 aneuploidy-free oocytes in 614 treatment cycles resulted in 131 clinical pregnancies and 88 healthy children born after confirmation of the polar body diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Polar body testing of oocytes provides an accurate and reliable approach for prevention of age-related aneuploidies in in vitro fertilization patients of advanced maternal age.  (+info)

(4/461) Advantages of day 4 embryo transfer in patients undergoing preimplantation genetic diagnosis of aneuploidy.

PURPOSE: Following preimplantation genetic diagnosis of aneuploidy, embryo transfer was executed on day 4, with the aim of providing more time for expanding from six to nine the number of diagnosed chromosomes per single cell (Group 2; 45 cycles). The results obtained were compared to those derived from conventional day 3 transfer (Group 1; 71 cycles). METHODS: For multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, two panels of probes were used: the first, specific for chromosomes XY, 13, 16, 18, and 21, was tested in all patients (Groups 1 and 2); the second was implemented only in Group 2 patients for the detection of chromosomes 14, 15, and 22. RESULTS: A total of 406 embryos underwent fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis in Group 1, and 236 in Group 2. Comparable percentages of both chromosomal abnormalities (61% and 62%) and pregnancy and implantation rates (36% and 24.5% in Group 1, 41% and 23.6% in Group 2) resulted, regardless of the higher mean age in Group 2. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of the nine chromosomes which are most frequently associated with aneuploidy in humans could have an immediate impact on the rate of spontaneous abortions. Additional advantages are represented by the more accurate morphological evaluation of euploid embryos; the advanced compaction, which means that embryos are less exposed to damage during the transfer procedure; and the possibility of performing a reanalysis in cases where a fluorescence in situ hybridization diagnosis is not obtained.  (+info)

(5/461) Preimplantation genetic diagnosis of aneuploidy: were we looking at the wrong chromosomes?

PURPOSE: Our purpose was to study aneuploidy frequencies of chromosomes 1, 4, 6, 7, 14, 15, 17, 18, and 22 in cleavage-stage embryos. These frequencies were compared to spontaneous abortion data to determine differences in survival rate of their aneuploidies. METHODS: One hundred ninety-four embryos were analyzed with multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization. Embryos were divided into three maternal age groups: 20 to 34.9 years, (2) 35 to 39.9 years, and (3) 40 years and older. Embryos were also divided into two developmental and morphological groups; arrested and nonarrested embryos. RESULTS: The rate of aneuploidy was 14.51%, 14.10%, and 31.48% for age groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (P < 0.005). The chromosomes most frequently involved in aneuploidy events were 22, 15, 1, and 17. CONCLUSIONS: The chromosomes most involved in spontaneous abortions are not necessarily the ones causing a decrease in implantation rates with maternal age. Other aneuploidies, such as for chromosomes 1 and 17, may seldom implant or die shortly after implantation.  (+info)

(6/461) Patient-specific probes for preimplantation genetic diagnosis of structural and numerical aberrations in interphase cells.

PURPOSE: Our purpose was to evaluate the utility of translocation breakpoint-spanning DNA probes for prenatal genetic diagnosis of structural and numerical chromosome aberrations in interphase cells. METHODS: Breakpoint-spanning translocation probes were isolated from large insert DNA libraries and labeled so that the breakpoint regions were stained in different colors. Hybridization conditions were optimized using blastomeres biopsied from donated embryos. Probes were then applied to analyze patient blastomeres. RESULTS: We prepared translocation breakpoint-specific probes for 18 in vitro fertilization patients. Here, we describe the preparation of probes for two patients carrying balanced translocations involving chromosome 11 [t(11;22)(q23;q11), t(6;11)(p22.1;p15.3)]. The breakpoint cloning procedure could be accomplished in about 3-5 weeks. Additional time was needed to optimize probes. Application of probes demonstrated numerical as well as structural abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: Breakpoint-spanning probes allow chromosome analysis in interphase cells as required for preimplantation genetic diagnosis screening of blastomeres.  (+info)

(7/461) Accuracy of preimplantation diagnosis of single-gene disorders by polar body analysis of oocytes.

PURPOSE: A number of pitfalls in single-cell DNA analysis, including undetected DNA contamination, undetected allele drop out, and preferential amplification, may lead to misdiagnosis in preimplantation genetic diagnosis of single-gene disorders. METHODS: Preimplantation genetic diagnosis was performed by sequential first and second polar body analysis of oocytes in 26 couples at risk for having children with various single-gene disorders. Mutant genes were amplified simultaneously with linked polymorphic markers, and only embryos resulting from the mutation-free oocytes predicted by polar body analysis with confirmation by polymorphic marker testing were transferred back to patients. RESULTS: Overall 529 oocytes from 48 clinical cycles (26 patients) were tested, resulting in the transfer of 106 embryos in 44 clinical cycles. As many as 46 (9.6%) instances of allele dropout were observed, the majority (96%) of which were detected. Seventeen unaffected pregnancies were established, of which nine resulted in the birth of an unaffected child, and the rest are ongoing. CONCLUSIONS: A high accuracy of preimplantation genetic diagnosis of single-gene disorders is achieved by application of sequential analysis of the first and second polar body and multiplex polymerase chain reaction.  (+info)

(8/461) Preimplantation genetic diagnosis using fluorescent polymerase chain reaction: results and future developments.

PURPOSE: Fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a multipurpose technique that can be used for diagnosing sex, single-gene defects, and trisomies as well as determining DNA fingerprints from single cells. However, its effectiveness must be assessed before clinical preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) application. METHODS: Single and multiplex fluorescent PCR was applied to single cells and blastomeres. RESULTS: Fluorescent PCR can be used to diagnose sex from blastomeres and has been successfully applied in a clinical PGD sexing program resulting in a confirmed pregnancy. A further major advantage of fluorescent PCR is the ability to multiplex, providing multiple diagnoses and DNA fingerprints with a high reliability (approximately 75% for trisomy, 86% for DNA fingerprint) and good accuracy (70-80%). Allele dropout in multiplex PCR is approximately 20% per allele and does not appear to be associated with the fragment size. CONCLUSIONS: Fluorescent PCR is a powerful technique for PGD, and the effects of allele dropout must be considered, particularly in multiplex PCR.  (+info)