Pregnancy detection and the effects of age, body weight, and previous reproductive performance on pregnancy status and weaning rates of farmed fallow deer (Dama dama).
Fallow does (n = 502) of different ages (mature, 2-yr-old, and yearling) were maintained with bucks for a 60-d breeding season to determine whether previous reproductive performance and changes in BW affect doe pregnancy rates and to compare the effectiveness of ultrasonography and serum pregnancy-specific protein B (PSPB) for the detection of pregnancy in fallow does. Ultrasonography was performed, blood samples collected, and BW recorded at buck removal (d 0) and at 30 and 90 d after buck removal. Lactational status (lactating = WET; nonlactating = DRY) were determined from farm records taken at weaning prior to each breeding season (autumn 1990 through autumn 1994). Ultrasonography and PSPB for determining pregnancy were in agreement 93% of the time. Overall pregnancy rates did not differ (P>.10) relative to age of the doe; the combined pregnancy rate was 92%. We also determined that 82.9% of does conceived early in the breeding season and that the incidence of embryonal-fetal mortality during the first 90 d after buck removal was 2.8%. In general, mature and 2-yr-old DRY does were heavier and had lower pregnancy rates than WET does. The overall weaning rate for all does was 77.9%. Loss in the number of fawns from pregnancy detection to weaning was equivalent to 14.8% for mature does, 24.7% for 2 yr old does, and 42.5% for yearling does. These data indicate that even though pregnancy rates were relatively high, further study is needed to determine the causes associated with subsequent fawn losses, particularly among yearling does. As a production tool, lactational WET/ DRY status testing was found to be an acceptable means for determining the reproductive potential of individual does within the herd. In addition, serum PSPB may be used in place of ultrasonography for pregnancy diagnosis in fallow deer as early as d 30 after buck removal. (+info)
Pregnancy testing before high-dose radioiodine treatment: a case report.
This case emphasizes that negative urine pregnancy testing and a written declaration of the patient are not sufficient to safely exclude an early pregnancy. Serum pregnancy testing inherently has a diagnostic gap of about 1 wk following conception. We recommend sufficient contraception at least 1 mo before radioiodine treatment in women of childbearing age. (+info)
Does ICSI affect early serum beta-HCG in pregnancies achieved after IVF?
This study was conducted to compare early serum human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) concentrations in singleton pregnancies achieved after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), with those achieved after conventional in-vitro fertilization (IVF). Early serum HCG, 14-16 days after embryo transfer, was analysed in 99 IVF pregnancies achieved after ICSI (group A), and compared to 105 conventional IVF pregnancies (group B). All women were treated at the IVF Unit, Lis Maternity Hospital. Records were studied retrospectively. The mean +/- SE serum HCG concentration on day 14 after embryo transfer in group A was 190.5 +/- 17.4 mIU/ml, compared to 195.7 +/- 14.03 mIU/ml in group B. HCG concentration 14 days after embryo transfer in both groups A and B was higher in women with mechanical factor than in couples with male factor infertility or unexplained infertility (246 +/- 31.4, 183.3 +/- 16.4, 177.98 +/- 14.3 mIU/ml respectively). On the 16th day after embryo transfer, the HCG concentration increased, and the difference between the groups was maintained. Only in the subgroup of unexplained infertility did we find a difference in concentrations of HCG between ICSI and conventional IVF: on the 16th day following embryo transfer in this group there was a significant difference in HCG concentrations (395. 8 +/- 21 and 545.6 +/- 45.7 respectively; P = 0.04). HCG concentrations did not differ overall in the conventional IVF pregnancies compared with those achieved by ICSI. However, a statistical difference in early serum HCG concentrations was found in relation to the aetiology of infertility. (+info)
Prevalence of home pregnancy testing among adolescents.
OBJECTIVES: This study estimated the prevalence of home pregnancy testing among adolescents. METHODS: A survey was administered in 11 urban clinics to 600 females aged 13 to 19 years. RESULTS: The prevalence of home pregnancy test use was 34% among 474 sexually experienced youths; 77% of the users had received at least 1 negative pregnancy test result, and 48% took no further action for confirmation. Compared with those who had never used such tests, users were older, younger at sexual debut, less likely to consistently use effective birth control, and more likely to have ever been pregnant. CONCLUSIONS: Health care clinics are important sources for pregnancy prevention, but clinics may have limited opportunity to intervene with some youths who use home pregnancy tests. (+info)
Factors affecting contraceptive use in women seeking pregnancy tests: Missouri, 1997.
CONTEXT: If the national health objective of reducing unintended pregnancy is to be met, a better understanding is needed of barriers to women's acquisition and use of contraceptives. METHODS: A sample of 311 Missouri women who were seeking pregnancy tests in public health department clinics in 1997 and who said their potential pregnancy was unintended were asked about potential barriers to family planning. Factors affecting contraceptive use among these women were examined by frequency of use, insurance status, education and race. RESULTS: In general, the women mostly disagreed that particular factors were potential barriers to contraceptive use. For only one item--worry over the potential side effects of the hormonal injectable contraceptive--did a majority agree or strongly agree that it was a barrier to method use in the previous six months. Women who used a contraceptive infrequently were more likely than frequent users to identify 33 factors in nine areas as being potential barriers to contraceptive use. These ranged from factors involving access to services and condom-specific issues to cost-related concerns, social norms, pregnancy denial, embarrassment over discussing or obtaining birth control, worry about side effects and experience with forced sex, among others. Perceived barriers differed somewhat by insurance status in the areas of access, embarrassment, side effects and forced sex. For example, women with no insurance coverage reported a higher level of agreement that transportation problems had hindered their access to a clinic than did women with private insurance. Level of education affected agreement only in the area of side effects, with more-educated women expressing greater concern about side effects than less-educated women. The respondent's race affected agreement in six areas: access, social norms, pregnancy denial, embarrassment, forced sex and other miscellaneous concerns, such as condom use and relationship issues. CONCLUSION: Better education and improved access to and delivery of services might address several factors affecting contraceptive use that are associated with unintended pregnancy. Some barriers, however, such as those related to self-efficacy, self-esteem and fatalistic attitudes about pregnancy, would be much harder for family planning providers to resolve. (+info)
Teenagers educating teenagers about reproductive health and their rights to confidential care.(6/142)
Advances in ultrasound assessment in the establishment and development of pregnancy.
Current data demonstrate that angiogenesis in the ovaries and uterus is an essential component of both follicular and luteal phases of menstrual cycle, tightly correlating with the levels of bioactive substances such as hormones, growth factors and interleukins. Ultrasound is used principally to demonstrate follicular growth, a receptive triple layer endometrium and to exclude pathologies such as fibroids and ovarian tumours. However, the development of new technologies such as CDI, CPA, 3D-US, 3D-CPA is now set to expand the role of ultrasound in the assessment of the processes in the ovaries, uterus and early pregnancy. There is growing evidence that studies of peri-follicular vascularity will predict the development of a healthy oocyte and subsequently an embryo. Endometrial blood flow studies with conventional CDI and the newer techniques of CPA and 3D-CPA will be important in predicting endometrial receptivity. Ovarian stromal vascularity appears to correlate with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels and high vascularity is associated with PCO and a risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. 3D-CPA may improve our ability to assess ovarian and endometrial vascularization and blood circulation, to diagnose tubal patency. Increasingly, 3D ultrasound is being applied to diagnose the pathology of early singleton and multiple pregnancies. (+info)
Comparison of various reproductive status in Sika deer (Cervus nippon) using fecal steroid analysis.
The feasibility of fecal steroid analysis for pregnancy diagnosis and sex determination were tested in sika deer (Cervus nippon). Feces were collected from captive sika deer in June (non-breeding season and late-pregnancy period) and October (breeding season), and also from the rectum of 24 female sika deer (19 pregnant and 5 non-pregnant females) shot as part of programs for population control in February and March (mid-pregnancy period). In mid- and late-pregnancy periods, fecal progesterone concentrations were significantly higher in pregnant female than in male and non-pregnant female deer. In October, fecal testosterone concentrations were higher in adult male deer, and no difference was found between young males and females. These results suggest that fecal steroid analysis would be a useful means for estimating pregnancy status and for detecting adult male among wild deer. (+info)