Comparing ambulatory preceptors' and students' perceptions of educational planning.
To compare ambulatory preceptors' and students' perceptions of the use of educational planning (setting goals, assessing needs, formulating objectives, choosing methods, and providing feedback and evaluation) in the office setting, we mailed a survey, which was returned by 127 longitudinal ambulatory preceptors and 168 first-year and second-year medical students. Faculty perceptions did not match student perceptions of what occurred in the longitudinal preceptor program teaching sessions in educational planning areas. Students perceived these activities were occurring with much less frequency than faculty perceived. Medical education needs to move beyond the usual faculty development workshop paradigm to a more comprehensive educational development model that includes training both faculty and students in core educational skills. This will enable the ambulatory setting to reach its full educational potential in training future physicians. (+info)
Educational and career outcomes of an internal medicine preceptorship for first-year medical students.
OBJECTIVE: Medical educators have attempted in recent years to provide quality clinical experiences for medical students early in their medical training. We questioned whether participating in a preceptorship in internal medicine (PIM) resulted in better performances on subsequent clinical rotations and increased interest in internal medicine. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-four students have participated in the PIM to date, with control groups consisting of students who applied for it but were not selected (n = 36), students participating in a preceptorship in family medicine (n = 168), and the remaining students (n = 330). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: University medical center and community practices. INTERVENTION: A 2-month, clinical preceptorship following the first year of medical school. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The following outcomes were assessed: scores in the introduction to clinical medicine course; grades in the medical ethics course; scores from the internal medicine clerkship; and choosing a career in internal medicine. In their second year, PIM students scored higher in both semesters of the introduction to clinical medicine course (87% and 86% vs 84% and 84%, p's <.01) and were more likely to receive honors in ethics (50% vs 29%, p <.01) than non-PIM students. During the internal medicine clerkship, PIM students' scores were significantly higher on an objective structured clinical examination (79% vs 76%, p =.05), ambulatory clinical evaluations (80% vs 76%, p <.01), and overall clerkship scores (78% vs 75%, p =.03) but not on inpatient clinical evaluations or on the National Board of Medical Examiners Subject Examination. Preceptorship students were more likely to receive honors grades in the medicine clerkship (33% vs 10%, p <.01), and they were more likely to match into internal medicine residencies than control students (54% vs 27%, p <.01). CONCLUSIONS: The PIM course is an intervention, early in students' careers, which appears to benefit them academically and increase their interest in internal medicine as a career. (+info)
Did I answer your question? Attending physicians' recognition of residents' perceived learning needs in ambulatory settings.
Accurately recognizing the learning goals of trainees should enhance teachers' effectiveness. We sought to determine how commonly such recognition occurs and whether it improves residents' satisfaction with the teaching interaction. In a cross-sectional survey of 97 internal medicine residents and 42 ambulatory clinic preceptors in five ambulatory care clinics in Washington and Oregon, we systematically sampled 236 dyadic teaching interactions. Each dyad participant independently indicated the residents' perceived learning needs from a standardized list. Overall, the preceptors' recognition of the residents' learning needs, as measured by percentage of agreement between preceptors and residents on the learning topics, was modest (kappa 0.21, p =.02). The percentage of agreement for all topics was 43%, ranging from 8% to 66%. Greater time pressures were associated with lower agreement (38% vs 56% for the highest and lowest strata of resident-reported time pressure; 15% vs 43% for highest and lowest strata of preceptor-reported time pressure). Agreement increased as the number of sessions the pair had worked together increased (62% for pairs with > 20 vs 17% for pairs with 0 previous sessions). Satisfaction with teaching encounters was high (4.5 on a 5-point scale) and unrelated to the degree of agreement ( p =.92). These findings suggest that faculty development programs should emphasize precepting skills in recognizing residents' perceived learning needs and that resident clinics should be redesigned to maximize preceptor-resident continuity and minimize time pressure. (+info)
What are the characteristics of the competent general practitioner trainer?
BACKGROUND: Increasing attention is being given to the training of doctors to become teachers. This does not apply only to the schooling of teachers in undergraduate medical education: at the postgraduate level, general practitioner trainers (GP-trainers) receive special schooling to prepare them for their role. Yet the skills, knowledge and traits that should be expected in the competent GP-trainer have not been elucidated precisely. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this research project is to determine the traits, knowledge and skills required for a competent GP-trainer. METHOD: We used a qualitative method to answer the question. Ten focus-group meetings were held involving three Departments of Vocational Training in The Netherlands. Each group consisted of GP-trainers, GP-trainees or staff members. The transcriptions of these meetings were analysed, resulting in a description of what makes a competent GP-trainer. RESULTS: Five hundred items were obtained from the focus-group meetings, each of which was formulated in the form "A good GP-trainer is/can/knows. ", etc. These items were divided into the following categories: teaching knowledge, teaching skills, teaching attitude and personality traits of the GP-trainer. A competent GP-trainer must understand basic teaching methods and be able to apply this knowledge. The skill to give good feedback was seen as an important asset for a competent GP-trainer, as were observation skills, the skill to analyse and the skill to foster reflection in the trainee. The teaching attitude of a competent GP-trainer is characterized by giving latitude to and having respect for and interest in the trainee, and being available for consultation, while the teaching approach should be individualized. Enthusiasm, flexibility, patience and self-insight were some of the personality traits identified. CONCLUSION: Many characteristics were identified as a result of this research. The next logical step will involve a Delphi consensus procedure to obtain a profile of the competent GP-trainer. This profile will then be suitable in setting the standards for curricula for future GP-trainers. (+info)
A study of primary care teaching comparing academic and community-based settings.
OBJECTIVE: To compare teaching activity and content between academic and community-based practices used in third year medical student primary care training. SETTING: Academic and community-based primary care practices participating in third-year internal medicine, family medicine, and primary care core clerkships. PARTICIPANTS: Five-hundred thirteen preceptor-student encounters involving 32 preceptors and 26 third-year medical students were evaluated. DESIGN: Student-preceptor pairs collected a convenience sample of data from shared patient encounters. Preceptors recorded the content of teaching interventions, and students independently documented learning points received for each clinical encounter. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Comparison of problem exposure, frequency and content of teaching interventions, and the effect of patient complexity and patient care workload on teaching frequency was made between the academic and community-based practices. Several small differences were found in the frequency of clinical problem exposure between the 2 settings. The frequency and focus of teaching interventions did not differ by practice type. Teaching by community-based preceptors tended to decrease with increased patient care workload, but increased in academically based practices. CONCLUSIONS: Although several differences exist between educational experiences in community- and academically based primary care practices, they appear to be minor and of minimal educational significance. (+info)
Does vocational training encourage continuing professional development?
The aim of this study was to compare the continuing professional development of young dentists who had participated in a vocational training scheme with that of young dentists who had not. It was encouraging to find both groups were actively involved in a broad range of continuing educational activities. (+info)
Perceptions of vocational trainees on gender and racial disadvantage within the Thames vocational training programme.
BACKGROUND: A recent report has suggested that vocational trainees within London experienced racial or gender disadvantage during their selection. This exploratory study did not investigate the extent or the nature of this disadvantage. AIM: To undertake a survey using a pre-tested questionnaire with dental vocational trainees on the Thames Scheme. The questionnaire explored perceived and experienced aspects of gender and racial disadvantage during their vocational training programme. RESULTS: 127 trainees completed the questionnaire (response rate 92%). Minority ethnic respondents were more than twice as likely to feel their selection was influenced by gender (odds ratio [OR] 2.25, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.02, 5.10) and more than three times likely to feel selection was influenced by their race when compared with their white colleagues (OR 3.05, 95%; CI 1.01,11.45). The majority of trainees did not perceive any disadvantage whilst on the vocational training course. For example, only five respondents (4%) felt that minority ethnic individuals were treated less favourably during the vocational training course. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, this preliminary study has attempted to explore inter-ethnic differences within the profession on perceived racial disadvantage and possible strategies for change. It is clear that the perception of disadvantage is greater than the reality within the experience of most trainees. (+info)
Experiences and perceptions of vocational training reported by the 1999 cohort of vocational dental practitioners and their trainers in England and Wales.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the self-reported confidence of vocational dental practitioners (VDPs) in clinical procedures together with vocational trainers' perceptions of the VDPs confidence in the same procedures, immediately after qualification and towards the end of the vocational training year. DESIGN: A questionnaire-based cohort study. SETTING: A general practice study carried out in 1999. SUBJECTS: Vocational Dental Practitioners and vocational trainers in England and Wales. METHOD: VDPs and trainers were asked on a single occasion to grade the clinical confidence of the VDP at the beginning and near the end of vocational training as high, satisfactory or low. RESULTS: Questionnaires were sent to 531 VDPs and 555 trainers; 82 per cent of VDPs and trainers responded. Approximately half the VDPs were male and 57 per cent were white, whilst 89 per cent of trainers were male and 81 per cent white. A large proportion of both VDPs and trainers reported low confidence in orthodontics, molar endodontics and surgical extractions at the start of the training year. Towards the end of training, both groups reported improved confidence levels in most clinical procedures. However, a higher proportion of trainers reported low confidence than their VDPs in most clinical procedures at both time points (p<0.001). VDPs appeared to gain most from experience and training in administration/management and interpersonal skills. CONCLUSION: Vocational training appears to satisfy its aim to enhance clinical and administrative confidence. (+info)