Interleukin-18 binding protein: a novel modulator of the Th1 cytokine response.
An interleukin-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) was purified from urine by chromatography on IL-18 beads, sequenced, cloned, and expressed in COS7 cells. IL-18BP abolished IL-18 induction of interferon-gamma (IFNgamma), IL-8, and activation of NF-kappaB in vitro. Administration of IL-18BP to mice abrogated circulating IFNgamma following LPS. Thus, IL-18BP functions as an inhibitor of the early Th1 cytokine response. IL-18BP is constitutively expressed in the spleen, belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily, and has limited homology to the IL-1 type II receptor. Its gene was localized on human chromosome 11q13, and no exon coding for a transmembrane domain was found in an 8.3 kb genomic sequence. Several Poxviruses encode putative proteins highly homologous to IL-18BP, suggesting that viral products may attenuate IL-18 and interfere with the cytotoxic T cell response. (+info)
Mucosal vaccination overcomes the barrier to recombinant vaccinia immunization caused by preexisting poxvirus immunity.
Overcoming preexisting immunity to vaccinia virus in the adult population is a key requirement for development of otherwise potent recombinant vaccinia vaccines. Based on our observation that s.c. immunization with vaccinia induces cellular and antibody immunity to vaccinia only in systemic lymphoid tissue and not in mucosal sites, we hypothesized that the mucosal immune system remains naive to vaccinia and therefore amenable to immunization with recombinant vaccinia vectors despite earlier vaccinia exposure. We show that mucosal immunization of vaccinia-immune BALB/c mice with recombinant vaccinia expressing HIV gp160 induced specific serum antibody and strong HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. These responses occurred not only in mucosal but also in systemic lymphoid tissue, whereas systemic immunization was ineffective under these circumstances. In this context, intrarectal immunization was more effective than intranasal immunization. Boosting with a second dose of recombinant vaccinia was also more effective via the mucosal route. The systemic HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response was enhanced by coadministration of IL-12 at the mucosal site. These results also demonstrate the independent compartmentalization of the mucosal versus systemic immune systems and the asymmetric trafficking of lymphocytes between them. This approach to circumvent previous vaccinia immunity may be useful for induction of protective immunity against infectious diseases and cancer in the sizable populations with preexisting immunity to vaccinia from smallpox vaccination. (+info)
Adenovirus-mediated expression of Fas ligand induces apoptosis of human prostate cancer cells.
Several laboratories have reported on the apoptotic potentials of human prostate cancer (PC) cell lines in response to crosslinking of Fas (CD95/APO-1) with agonistic anti-Fas antibodies. We have re-evaluated the apoptotic potentials of seven human PC cell lines using the natural Fas ligand (FasL) in place of agonistic antibody. First, PC cell lines were tested in a standard cytotoxicity assay with a transfected cell line that stably expresses human FasL. Next, we developed an adenoviral expression system employing 293 cells that stably express crmA, a poxvirus inhibitor of apoptosis, to analyze the effects of FasL when expressed internally by the PC cell lines. Our data suggest that the apoptotic potentials of these cell lines were greatly underestimated in previous studies utilizing agonistic anti-Fas antibodies. Lastly, adenoviral-mediated expression of FasL prevented growth and induced regression of two human PC cell lines in immunodeficient mice. These preliminary in vivo results suggest a potential use for adenovirus encoding FasL as a gene therapy for PC. (+info)
Poxvirus-encoded serpins do not prevent cytolytic T cell-mediated recovery from primary infections.
Previous observations that the highly conserved poxvirus-encoded serpins inhibit cytotoxic activities of alloreactive CTL via granule and/or Fas-mediated pathways was taken to indicate their involvement in immune evasion by poxviruses. We now show that interference with 51Cr release from target cells by ectromelia and cowpoxvirus is limited to alloreactive but not MHC-restricted CTL. The data are in support of the paramount importance of CTL and its effector molecule perforin in the recovery from primary ectromelia virus infection and question the role of serpins in the evasion of poxviruses from killing by CTL. Further analysis of poxvirus interference with target cell lysis by alloreactive CTL revealed that suppression primarily affects the Fas-mediated, and to a lesser extent, the granule exocytosis pathway. Serpin-2 is the main contributor to suppression for both killing pathways. In addition, inhibition of lysis was shown to be both target cell type- and MHC allotype-dependent. We hypothesize that differences in TCR affinities and/or state of activation between alloreactive and MHC-restricted CTL as well as the quality (origin) of target cells are responsible for the observed phenomenon. (+info)
Viral modulation of the host response via crmA/SPI-2 expression.
Viruses have evolved numerous strategies to modulate the host response to infection. Poxviruses cause acute infections and need to replicate quickly to promote efficient transmission. Consequently, it is not surprising to learn that poxviruses encode a large number of proteins designed to target various arms of the host inflammatory response. One of the earliest described and most well-studied viral modulatory proteins is crmA/SPI-2. While the biochemical targets and possible modes of action have been well characterized in vitro, the role that crmA/SPI-2 plays during natural infection is less clear. It may have effects in modulating host responses involving apoptosis and inflammation. It is important to further understand the precise mode of action of viral proteins, such as crmA/SPI-2, because this may lead to better therapeutic strategies to combat a range of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. (+info)
A triad of costimulatory molecules synergize to amplify T-cell activation.
The activation of a T cell has been shown to require two signals via molecules present on professional antigen-presenting cells: signal 1, via a peptide/MHC complex; and signal 2, via a costimulatory molecule. Here, the role of three costimulatory molecules in the activation of T cells was examined. Poxvirus (vaccinia and avipox) vectors were used because of their ability to efficiently express multiple genes. Murine cells provided with signal 1 and infected with either recombinant vaccinia or avipox vectors containing a TRIad of COstimulatory Molecules (B7-1/ICAM-1/LFA-3, designated TRICOM) induced the activation of T cells to a far greater extent than cells infected with any one or two costimulatory molecules. Despite this T-cell "hyperstimulation" using TRICOM vectors, no evidence of apoptosis above that seen using the B7-1 vector was observed. Results using the TRICOM vectors were most dramatic under conditions of either low levels of first signal or low stimulator cell:T-cell ratios. Experiments using a four-gene construct also showed that TRICOM recombinants can enhance antigen-specific T-cell responses in vivo. These studies thus demonstrate for the first time the ability of vectors to introduce three costimulatory molecules into cells, thereby activating both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell populations to levels greater than those achieved with the use of only one or two costimulatory molecules. This new threshold of T-cell activation has broad implications in vaccine design and development. (+info)
A review of virus infections of cataceans and the potential impact of morbilliviruses, poxviruses and papillomaviruses on host population dynamics.
Viruses belonging to 9 families have been detected in cetaceans. We critically review the clinical features, pathology and epidemiology of the diseases they cause. Cetacean morbillivirus (family Paramyxoviridae) induces a serious disease with a high mortality rate and persists in several populations. It may have long-term effects on the dynamics of cetacean populations either as enzootic infection or recurrent epizootics. The latter presumably have the more profound impact due to removal of sexually mature individuals. Members of the family Poxviridae infect several species of odontocetes, resulting in ring and tattoo skin lesions. Although poxviruses apparently do not induce a high mortality, circumstancial evidence suggests they may be lethal in young animals lacking protective immunity, and thus may negatively affect net recruitment. Papillomaviruses (family Papovaviridae) cause genital warts in at least 3 species of cetaceans. In 10% of male Burmeister's porpoises Phocoena spinipinnis from Peru, lesions were sufficiently severe to at least hamper, if not impede, copulation. Members of the families Herpesviridae, Orthomyxoviridae and Rhabdoviridae were demonstrated in cetaceans suffering serious illnesses, but with the exception of a 'porpoise herpesvirus' their causative role is still tentative. Herpes-like viruses and caliciviruses (Caliciviridae) give rise to cutaneous diseases in Monodontidae and Delphinidae. Antibodies to several serotypes of caliciviruses were found in odontocetes and mysticetes. An unrecognized Hepadnaviridae was detected by serology in a captive Pacific white-sided dolphin Lagenorhynchus obliquidens with chronic persistent hepatitis. Adenoviruses (Adenoviridae) were isolated from the intestinal tracts of mysticeti and a beluga Delphinapterus leucas but were not associated with any pathologies. We discuss the potential impact of Paramyxoviridae, Poxviridae and Papovaviridae on the dynamics of several odontocete populations. (+info)
Characteristics of a Kenyan camelpox virus.
A virus was isolated from pock-like vesicular eruptions of camels in Northern Kenya. This virus was shown to be a pox virus with many characteristics of members of the Orthopox group. It appears to be identical with camelpox strains from Iran and has similar properties to certain East African variola strains. (+info)