Microbial decontamination of human donor eyes with povidone-iodine: penetration, toxicity, and effectiveness.
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Povidone-iodine (PVP -I) is applied for microbial decontamination of human eyes donated for transplantation. Concentrations and immersion times vary greatly. The effectiveness and toxicity of PVP-I were assessed for different decontamination protocols. METHODS: Human donor eyes and corneas were immersed in different concentrations (5-100 mg/ml) of PVP-I for different times (2-30 minutes). The penetration of iodine into the corneal tissue was assessed by x ray microanalysis. Microbial contamination was determined by taking cultures of the limbal areas and storage solutions and by incubation of the corneoscleral buttons in antibiotic-free culture medium. Cytotoxicity of PVP-I for corneal fibroblasts in culture was assessed using the MTT assay. RESULTS: Depending on concentration and immersion time iodine was found to penetrate into the epithelium, Bowman's layer, and stroma in amounts equivalent to 2-40 mg/ml PVP-I. The MTT assay demonstrated that 2.5 mg/ml PVP-I caused total damage to fibroblasts in vitro. Rinsing eyes with tap water and subsequent immersion in PVP-I reduced the rate of contamination from 82 out of 106 to 69 out of 106 and 37 out of 106, respectively. Antibiotics in the storage medium further reduced contamination from about 40% to 3%. Microbial contamination was not reduced by increasing the concentration and immersion times beyond 5 mg/ml PVP-I for 2 minutes. CONCLUSION: Immersion of human donor eyes in 5 mg/ml PVP-I solution for 2 minutes significantly reduces microbial contamination of donor corneas without relevant penetration of iodine into the corneal layers. Higher PVP-I concentrations and longer immersion times do not further reduce contamination, whereas the amount of iodine penetrating the corneal layers is elevated above the level cytotoxic for corneal fibroblasts. In view of this, concentrations above 5 mg/ml of PVP-I and immersion periods over 2 minutes are not recommended for reduction of the contamination rate of donor eyes. (+info)
Recovery of a second instar Gasterophilus larva in a human infant: a case report.
We report a case in an infant of horse bot fly myiasis that was unusual because the maggot had developed to the second instar (of three potential instars). This represents the first report of such late development in a human. The case occurred in a rural area of the Pacific northwest (Washington) in late summer. (+info)
Prospective randomized trial of 10% povidone-iodine versus 0.5% tincture of chlorhexidine as cutaneous antisepsis for prevention of central venous catheter infection.
A multicenter prospective, randomized, controlled trial, with 0.5% tincture of chlorhexidene versus 10% povidone-iodine as cutaneous antisepsis for central venous catheter (CVC) insertion, was conducted for patients in intensive care units. Of 374 patients, 242 had a CVC inserted for >3 days and were used for the primary analysis. Outcomes included catheter-related bacteremia, significant catheter colonization (> or = 15 colony-forming units [cfu]), exit-site infection, serial quantitative exit-site culture (every 72 h), and molecular subtyping of all isolates. Patients in both study groups were comparable with respect to age, sex, underlying disease, length of hospitalization, reason for line insertion, and baseline APACHE II score. Documented catheter-related bacteremia rates were 4.6 cases per 1000 catheter-days in the chlorhexidine group (n=125) and 4.1 cases per 1000 catheter-days in the povidone-iodine group (n=117; not significant [NS]). Significant catheter-tip colonization occurred in 24 (27%) of 88 patients in the povidone-iodine group and in 31 (34%) of 92 patients in the chlorhexidine group (NS). A mean exit-site colony count of 5.9 x 10(5) cfu/mL per 25 cm(2) of the surface area of skin in the povidone-iodine group versus 3.1 x 10(5) cfu/mL per 25 cm(2) in the chlorhexidine group (NS) was found. There was a trend toward fewer exit-site infections in the chlorhexidine group (0 of 125 patients) versus those in the povidone-iodine group (4 of 117 patients; P=.053). Results of an intention-to-treat analysis were unchanged from the primary analysis. No difference was demonstrable between 0.5% tincture of chlorhexidine and 10% povidone-iodine when used for cutaneous antisepsis for CVC insertion in patients in the intensive care unit. (+info)
Chlorhexidine versus povidone iodine in preventing colonization of continuous epidural catheters in children: a randomized, controlled trial.
BACKGROUND: Chlorhexidine is better than povidone iodine for skin preparation before intravascular device insertion or blood culture collection, but it is not known whether chlorhexidine is superior in reducing colonization of continuous epidural catheters. METHODS: Children requiring an epidural catheter for postoperative analgesia longer than 24 h were randomly assigned to receive skin preparation with an alcoholic solution of 0.5% chlorhexidine or an aqueous solution of 10% povidone iodine before catheter insertion. Using surgical aseptic techniques, catheters were inserted into either the lumbar or the thoracic epidural space based on the preferences of the anesthesia team, on clinical indication, or both. Immediately before epidural catheter removal, their insertion site and hub were qualitatively cultures. After their removal, the catheter tips were quantitatively cultured. Catheters were classified as colonized when their tips yielded 1,000 or more colony-forming units/ml in cultures. RESULTS: Of 100 randomly assigned patients, 96 were evaluable. The clinical characteristics of the patients and the risk factors for infection were similar in the two groups. Catheters were kept in place for a median (range) duration of 50 (range, 21-100) h. Catheters inserted after skin preparation with chlorhexidine were one sixth as likely and less quickly to be colonized as catheters inserted after skin preparation with povidone iodine (1 of 52 catheters [0.9 per 100 catheter days] vs. 5 of 44 catheters [5.6 per 100 catheter days]; relative risk, 0.2 [95% confidence interval, 0.1-1.0]; P = 0.02). Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the only colonizing microorganisms recovered, and the skin surrounding the catheter insertion site was the origin of all the colonizing microorganisms. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with aqueous povidone iodine, the use of alcoholic chlorhexidine for cutaneous antisepsis before epidural catheter insertion reduces the risk of catheter colonization in children. (+info)
Fusidic acid cream in the treatment of impetigo in general practice: double blind randomised placebo controlled trial.
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that fusidic acid would not increase the treatment effect of disinfecting with povidone-iodine alone in children with impetigo. DESIGN: Randomised placebo controlled trial. SETTING: General practices in Greater Rotterdam. PARTICIPANTS: 184 children aged 0-12 years with impetigo. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical cure and bacterial cure after one week. RESULTS: After one week of treatment 55% of the patients in the fusidic acid group were clinically cured compared with 13% in the placebo group (odds ratio 12.6, 95% confidence interval 5.0 to 31.5, number needed to treat 2.3). After two weeks and four weeks the differences in cure rates between the two groups had become smaller. More children in the placebo group were non-compliant (12 v 5) and received extra antibiotic treatment (11 v 3), and more children in the placebo group reported adverse effects (19 v 7). Staphylococcus aureus was found in 96% of the positive cultures; no strains were resistant to fusidic acid. CONCLUSIONS: Fusidic acid is much more effective than placebo (when both are given in combination with povidone-iodine shampoo) in the treatment of impetigo. Because of the low rate of cure and high rate of adverse events in the placebo group, the value of povidone-iodine in impetigo can be questioned. (+info)
Preventing infection from reusable medical equipment: a systematic review.
BACKGROUND: In 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) had eight sets of conflicting recommendations for decontaminating medical equipment. We conducted a systematic review of observational studies to assist WHO in reconciling the various guidelines. This paper summarises the methods developed and illustrates the results for three procedures--alcohol, bleach and povidone iodine. METHODS: We developed a Medline search strategy and applied inclusion criteria specifying the decontamination procedures of interest and an outcome of microbial destruction for a set of marker organisms. We developed protocols to assess the quality of studies and categorised them according to the reliability of the methods used. Through an iterative process we identified best practice for the decontamination methods and key additional factors required to ensure their effectiveness. We identified 88 published papers for inclusion, describing 135 separate studies of decontamination. RESULTS: For disinfection with alcohol, best practice was identified from 23 studies as an exposure to 70-80% ethanol or isopropanol for at least 5 minutes. Bleach was effective for sterilization at a concentration of 5000 ppm for 5 minutes and for disinfection at 1000 ppm for 10 minutes (33 studies). Povidone iodine was only partially effective for disinfection at a concentration of 1% for 15 minutes (15 studies). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide an evidence base for WHO guidelines on decontaminating medical equipment. The results support the recommended use of bleach and show that alcohol could be used more widely than current guidelines suggest, provided best practice is followed. The effectiveness of povidone iodine is uncertain. (+info)
A study to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of feracrylum and its comparison with povidone-iodine.
Feracrylum, a water-soluble polymer of polyacrylic acid is known for its hemostatic property. Present work is an effort to evaluate its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and compare it with the MIC of povidone-iodine. Ten different species of pathogenic microorganisms were selected, strains of which were obtained from Haffkine Institute. The organisms were maintained under appropriate culture media. The MIC of Freracrylum was determined by using tube culture method where its activity was compared against a standard antimicrobial agent providone-iodine. The study parameters showed that Feracrylum exhibits antimicrobial activity against a wide variety of microorganisms and its efficacy is comparable to that of povidone-iodine. (+info)
Production and characterization of biodegradable Povidone-iodine microsphere as a intramammary disinfectant.
Microspheres composed of biocompatible, biodegradable poly DL-lactide-co-glycolide (DL-PLGA) and Povidone-iodine were evaluated as an intramammary disinfectant delivery system in vitro prior to infusion into mammary glands. Microsphere was prepared by solvent evaporation method and particle size, morphology and in vitro release kinetics were examined. The microspheres were ranged in size from 25 microm to 155 microm (mean diameter = 65.7 microm). Povidone-iodine was dispersed on the surface of microsphere and microsphere was spherical in shape with a smooth surface. The yield of microsphere was 57.3% and the encapsulation efficiency was 69.6%. In in vitro release study, a burst effect (50.9%) was observed during the first two days and a sustained release then continued for the next 28 days. Results of the present study demonstrated that microsphere have the potential for new intramammary disinfectant formulations that can provide increased efficacy of therapy against mastitis pathogens. (+info)