Trends in salmonella food poisoning in England and Wales 1941-72.
Cattle and pig herds and flocks of domestic fowl have formed the main reservoir of human salmonella food poisoning in England and Wales from 1941 to 1972. Changes in the incidence of human salmonella food poisoning and in the serotypes of salmonellas isolated from human infections are shown to have been associated with the introduction of new foods, with changes in animal husbandry, and with changes in the relative proportions of flesh food from different species consumed. New foods, dried powdered egg, liquid egg and frozen liquid egg were introduced during the period of food rationing which extended from 1940 to 1953. Changes in animal husbandry, in particular the intensive production of pigs, poultry and eggs, followed the re-establishment of pig herds and fowl flocks after the derationing of animal feed in 1953. The changes in the proportions of flesh foods consumed followed the introduction of frozen oven-ready fowl in the late 1950s and early 1960s which by 1964 became cheaper than traditional flesh foods. (+info)
Experimental studies on organomercury poisoning in chickens in Iraq.
For 164 days mature chickens received a daily diet containing 40 g of wheat treated with organomercurial fungicide and 80 g of untreated diet. A control group received 120 g of normal diet daily. The experimental group was then split - half receiving the same diet for a further 155 days, by which time all had been killed or had died, the other half being fed the same diet as the controls. No cases of mercurialism were seen in the experimental group, although 2 died after 143 and 319 days respectively. Egg production fluctuated as between the groups. Mercury levels in egg albumin showed high peaks after 98 and 108 days. After the feeding of contaminated wheat had been discontinued the albumin mercury level did not fall consistently below 0.5 mg/kg for 127 days. Levels in egg yolk always remained below the level in wheat and dropped to zero 49 days after feeding of the dressed wheat had been discontinued. Mercury levels found in tissue were similar to those described by other authors. Levels in the edible parts of the single cock examined exceeded those in the hens. Implications of these findings for public health decisions on the use of chicken and eggs as food when the birds have had access to contaminated grain are discussed. (+info)
Epidemiologic application of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to an outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni in an Austrian youth centre.
We report the first documented Campylobacter jejuni outbreak in an Austrian youth centre. Sixty-four children were involved of which 38 showed classical signs of campylobacter gastroenteritis. Since unpasteurized milk distributed by a local dairy was suspected to be the source of infection, stool samples were collected from 20 cows providing the milk. Five of the cows tested positive for C. jejuni. These isolates together with 37 clinical samples were compared by pulsed-field-gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The PFGE patterns, using the restriction endonucleases SmaI and SalI, were identical for the human and bovine isolates. This finding confirmed that the outbreak was caused by the consumption of unpasteurized milk contaminated with C. jejuni. (+info)
Selenium content of food consumed by Canadians.
Four composite diets from three cities, each representing the daily per capita consumption of foods in Canada, contained on analysis 191, 220, 113, and 150 mug selenium. Cereals provided the most selenium (62-112 mug) followed by meat, poultry, and fish (25-90 mug) and dairy products (5-25 mug). The average daily intake of selenium in Canada was also calculated from published analytical data and the per capita disappearance of unprepared foods. The total intake was 197 mug/day, and the major sources were wheat flour (98 mug), pork (21 mug), poultry products (24 mug), and fish (17 mug). Because the average diet is rich in selenium, the possibility of a deficiency in the adult is considered to be remote. Milk is relatively low in selenium, and thus the greatest deprivation in humans would occur during infancy. (+info)
Variation within the vat(E) allele of Enterococcus faecium isolates from retail poultry samples.
In a survey of retail meat samples, twelve quinupristin-dalfopristin-resistant (MICs, > or =4 mg/liter) Enterococcus faecium isolates that carried a vat(E) gene were recovered. DNA sequence comparison revealed five new variations in the vat(E) allele among 12 isolates, which were designated vat(E-4) through vat(E-8); two isolates had vat(E-1). There was no correlation between the number of base changes and the quinupristin-dalfopristin MIC. (+info)
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of Salmonella in artificially inoculated chicken meat.
The aim of this study was to develop a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol for the detection of Salmonella in artificially contaminated chicken meat. Tests were performed with different dilutions of Salmonella Typhimurium or Salmonella Enteritidis cells (10(-7), 10(-8) or 10(-9) CFU/mL) inoculated in chicken meat samples, in order to establish the limits of detection, incubation times (0, 6, 8 and 24 hours of pre-enrichment in PBW 1%) and three DNA extraction protocols (phenol-chloroform, thermal treatment and thermal treatment and Sephaglass). The assay was able to detect until 10(-9) CFU/mL of initial dilution of Salmonella cells inoculated in chicken meat, which allows detection of Salmonella within 48 hours, including 24 hours of pre-enrichment and using the phenol-chloroform DNA extraction protocol. As the results are obtained in a shorter time period than that of microbiological culture, this procedure will be useful in the methodology for detection of Salmonella in chicken. (+info)
Assessment of the genetic diversity among arcobacters isolated from poultry products by using two PCR-based typing methods.
In this study, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR) were optimized for characterization of Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter cryaerophilus, and Arcobacter skirrowii. In addition, a simple and rapid DNA extraction method was tested for use in both typing procedures. Both methods had satisfactory typeability and discriminatory power, but the fingerprints generated with ERIC-PCR were more reproducible and complex than those obtained with RAPD-PCR. The use of nondiluted boiled cell suspensions as DNA templates was found to be very useful in ERIC-PCR. Characterization of large numbers of Arcobacter isolates is therefore preferably performed by the ERIC-PCR procedure. Isolates for which almost identical ERIC fingerprints are generated may subsequently be characterized by RAPD-PCR, although adjustment and standardization of the amount of the DNA template are necessary. In the second part of this study, the genotypic diversity of arcobacters present on broiler carcasses was assessed by using both typing methods. A total of 228 cultures from 24 samples were examined after direct isolation and enrichment. The isolates were identified by using a multiplex PCR as A. butzleri (n = 182) and A. cryaerophilus (n = 46). A total of 131 types (91 A. butzleri types and 40 A. cryaerophilus types) were discerned without discordance between the two typing techniques. The analysis of the poultry isolates showed that poultry products may harbor not only more than one species but also multiple genotypes. All genotypes were confined to one poultry sample, and only three genotypes were found after simultaneous enrichment and direct isolation. These results demonstrate that different outcomes can be obtained in epidemiological studies depending on the isolation procedure used and the number of isolates characterized. (+info)
Increasing quinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis.
Until recently, Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis has remained sensitive to most antibiotics. However, national surveillance data from Denmark show that quinolone resistance in S. Enteritidis has increased from 0.8% in 1995 to 8.5% in 2000. These data support concerns that the current use of quinolone in food animals leads to increasing resistance in S. Enteritidis and that action should be taken to limit such use. (+info)