Fusariotoxicosis from barley in British Columbia. I. Natural occurrence and diagnosis.
Clinical sickness was observed in domestic ducks, geese, horses and swine during October 1973. All species showed upper alimentary distress with mortalities occurring in the geese. Barley derived from a common source had been fed. Examination of the barley revealed invasion by Fusarium spp and detection of a high level of dermatitic fusariotoxins. (+info)
Temperature sensitivity studies on selected strains on Mycoplasma gallisepticum.
Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG324), a tylosin resistant strain of low virulence, was compared with four other strains with respect to their survival at temperatures from 46.1 to 48.9 degrees C. MG324 was found to be more resistant than the other strains tested. (+info)
Pathological changes in chickens, ducks and turkeys fed high levels of rapeseed oil.
Rations containing 25% of either regular rapeseed oil (36% erucic acid), Oro rapeseed oil (1.9% erucic acid), soybean oil or a mixture of lard and corn oil were fed to chickens, ducks and turkeys. The regular rapeseed oil ration caused growth depression, increased feed conversion and anemia in all species. All the ducks and some of the chickens fed the regular rapeseed oil ration died. These dead birds were affected with hydropericardium and ascites. No deaths in the turkeys could be attributed to the regular rapeseed oil ration but some turkeys fed this ration had degenerative foci characterized by infiltrations of histiocytic and giant cells in the myocardium. Severe fatty change in the heart, skeletal muscles, spleen and kidney was found at an early age in all birds fed the regular rapeseed oil ration. Less severe fatty change but no other lesions were found in birds fed the Oro rapeseed oil and soybean oil rations. (+info)
Lysis of myelocytes in chickens infected with infectious bursal disease virus.
In specific-pathogen-free chickens infected with the highly virulent HPS-2 strain or virulent reference GBF-1 strain of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), pathologic changes of the bone marrow were investigated. On histologic examination, bone marrow lesions were prominent in the HPS-2 group but only mild in the GBF-1 group. The bone marrow of the HPS-2 group showed severe lysis and depletion of heterophil myelocytes with pyknotic nuclear alteration 2-3 days after inoculation. On examination with an electron microscope, heterophil myelocytes were characterized by shrinkage of the cytoplasm and peripheral condensation of nuclear chromatin. IBDV particles were not detected in altered myelocytes. A terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labeling method demonstrated a positive reaction in only heterophil myelocytes. In contrast, nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in HPS-2-infected bone marrow cells was indiscernible by agarose gel electrophoresis. These findings indicate that lysis of bone marrow cells is selectively induced in heterophil myelocytes at an early stage after IBDV infection and independent of virus replication. (+info)
Complementary randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis patterns and primer sets to differentiate Mycoplasma gallisepticum strains.
Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to differentiate 7 strains of Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Six commercially available primers or primer combinations were screened for their ability to differentiate vaccine and type strains. Although major and minor bands were produced with each primer, many of the primers were unsuitable for strain differentiation. The use of primer 6 and combined primers 3 and 4 resulted in complementary RAPD banding patterns for each M. gallisepticum strain. Eleven different isolates representing 7 different strains were segregated into 7 different patterns, corresponding to the 7 strains. (+info)
Cloning of Mycoplasma synoviae genes encoding specific antigens and their use as species-specific DNA probes.
A genomic library of Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) was generated by using bacteriophage lambda gt11 as a cloning and expression vector. Identification of recombinant clones highly specific to MS was achieved by screening the library for expression of MS proteins with polyclonal antiserum that had been preadsorbed with 6 heterologous avian mycoplasma species antigens. Expression of the recombinant clones in Escherichia coli followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the total cell lysates and immunoblot yielded a predominant reactive fusion protein of 165 kD. Two clones (MS2/28 and MS2/12) that yielded inserts of different size were selected. The 2 MS DNA inserts were subcloned in a plasmid vector, labeled with digoxigenin, and used as probes for the specific recognition of several MS strains. A high degree of conservation was demonstrated for the MS2/12 and MS2/28 genes in tested MS strains. In addition, neither DNA fragment recognized any other avian mycoplasma species (M. gallisepticum, M. meleagridis, M. gallinarum, M. iners, M. anatis, and M. iowae), thus indicating their high specificity to MS. The sensitivity of the slot blot hybridization method using digoxigenin-labeled MS2/12 and MS2/28 probes for direct detection of MS from broth cultures of field isolates was 10(5) colony-forming units/ml. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of adsorbed antisera for the isolation of species-specific mycoplasma DNA and the potential for its use as probes for the specific and direct detection of MS from broth cultures of field isolates. (+info)
Feed deprivation affects crop environment and modulates Salmonella enteritidis colonization and invasion of leghorn hens.
Leghorn hens over 50 weeks of age were assigned to two treatment groups designated as either unmolted controls or molted. A forced molt was induced by a 9-day feed withdrawal, and each hen was challenged orally with 10(5) Salmonella enteritidis organisms on day 4 of feed withdrawal. On days 4 and 9 of molt, the numbers of lactobacilli and the concentrations of lactate, acetate, propionate, and butyrate, and total volatile fatty acids in the crops decreased while crop pH increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the molted hens compared to the controls. S. enteritidis crop and cecal colonization, in addition to spleen and liver invasion, increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the molted hens compared to the controls. The invasive phenotype of Salmonella spp. is complex and requires several virulence genes which are regulated by the transcriptional activator HilA. Samples of the crop contents from the molted and unmolted birds were pooled separately, centrifuged, and filter sterilized. The sterile crop contents were then used to measure the expression of hilA. By using a lacZY transcriptional fusion to the hilA gene in S. enteritidis, we found that hilA expression was 1.6- to 2.1-fold higher in the crop contents from molted birds than in those from control birds in vitro. The results of the study suggest that the changes in the microenvironment of the crop caused by feed deprivation are important regulators of S. enteritidis survival and influence the susceptibility of molted hens to S. enteritidis infections. Furthermore, our in vitro results on the expression of hilA suggest that the change in crop environment during feed withdrawal has the potential to significantly affect virulence by increasing the expression of genes necessary for intestinal invasion. (+info)
Coenonia anatina gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel bacterium associated with respiratory disease in ducks and geese.
Taxon 1502 was originally described as a Riemerella anatipestifer-like bacterium causing exudative septicaemia in ducks and geese. In the present study, an integrated genotypic and phenotypic approach was used to elucidate the phylogenetic affiliation and taxonomic relationships of 12 strains of taxon 1502. Whole-cell protein and fatty acid analyses and an extensive biochemical examination by using conventional tests and several API microtest systems indicated that all isolates formed a homogeneous taxon, which was confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridizations. 16S rDNA sequence analysis of a representative strain (LMG 14382T) indicated that this taxon belongs to the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides phylum and revealed a moderate but distinct relationship to species of the genus Capnocytophaga (overall 16S rDNA sequence identities were 88.8-90.2%). Taxon 1502 is concluded to represent a single species that should be allocated to a novel genus, and the name Coenonia anatina gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The DNA G + C content of representative strains was 35-36 mol% and the type strain is LMG 14382T. (+info)