Sufficient length of a poly(A) tail for the formation of a potential pseudoknot is required for efficient replication of bamboo mosaic potexvirus RNA.
RNAs transcribed from a full-length infectious cDNA clone of the bamboo mosaic potexvirus (strain O) genome, pBaMV-O, were infectious to Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Mutant genomes in which the poly(A) tail is absent or replaced by a 3' tRNA-like structure from turnip yellow mosaic virus RNA failed to amplify detectably in N. benthamiana protoplasts. No amplification was detected in protoplasts inoculated with transcripts containing 4, 7, or 10 adenylate residues at the 3' end, whereas transcript inocula with 15 adenylate residues resulted in coat protein accumulation to a level 26% of that resulting from inoculation with transcripts with 25 adenylate residues (designated as wild type). Coat protein accumulation levels of 69 and 98% relative to wild type were observed after inoculation of protoplasts with transcripts bearing poly(A) tails 18 and 22 nucleotides long, respectively. The presence of a putative 3' pseudoknot structure including at least 13 adenylate residues of the 3'-terminal poly(A) tail was supported by enzymatic and chemical structural analysis. The functional relevance of this putative pseudoknot was tested by mutations that affected basepairing within the pseudoknot. These results support the existence of functional 3' pseudoknot that includes part of the 3' poly(A) tail. (+info)
Bamboo mosaic potexvirus satellite RNA (satBaMV RNA)-encoded P20 protein preferentially binds to satBaMV RNA.
A satellite RNA of 836 nucleotides [excluding the poly(A) tail] depends on the bamboo mosaic potexvirus (BaMV) for its replication and encapsidation. The BaMV satellite RNA (satBaMV) contains a single open reading frame encoding a 20-kDa nonstructural protein (P20). The P20 protein with eight histidine residues at the C terminus was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Experiments of gel retardation, UV cross-linking, and Northwestern hybridization demonstrated that purified P20 was a nucleic-acid-binding protein. The binding of P20 to nucleic acids was strong and highly cooperative. P20 preferred binding to satBaMV- or BaMV-related sequences rather than to nonrelated sequences. By deletion analysis, the P20 binding sites were mainly located at the 5' and 3' untranslated regions of satBaMV RNA, and the RNA-protein interactions could compete with the poly(G) and, less efficiently, with the poly(U) homopolymers. The N-terminal arginine-rich motif of P20 was the RNA binding domain, as shown by in-frame deletion analysis. This is the first report that a plant virus satellite RNA-encoded nonstructural protein preferentially binds with nucleic acids. (+info)
The Rx gene from potato controls separate virus resistance and cell death responses.
Rx-mediated extreme resistance against potato virus X in potato does not involve a necrotic hypersensitive response at the site of initial infection and thereby differs from the more usual type of disease resistance in plants. However, the Rx protein is structurally similar to products of disease resistance genes conferring the hypersensitive response. We show in both Nicotiana spp and potato that Rx has the potential to initiate a cell death response but that extreme resistance is separate and epistatic to necrosis. These data indicate that cell death and pathogen arrest are separate disease resistance responses in plants. (+info)
Long-distance RNA-RNA interactions and conserved sequence elements affect potato virus X plus-strand RNA accumulation.
Conserved octanucleotide sequences located upstream of two major potato virus X (PVX) subgenomic RNAs (sgRNAs), as well as elements in the 5' end of the genome, affect accumulation of sgRNA. To determine if complementarity between these sequences is important for PVX RNA accumulation, we analyzed the effects of mutations within these elements and compensatory mutations in a tobacco protoplast system and in plants. Mutations in the 5' nontranslated region (NTR mutants) that reduced complementarity resulted in lower genomic RNA (gRNA) and sgRNA levels, whereas mutations to the octanucleotide elements affected only the corresponding sgRNA levels. However, for both the NTR and octanucleotide mutants, the extent of reductions in RNA levels did not directly correlate with the degree of complementarity, suggesting that the sequences of these elements are also important. Mutants containing changes in the NTR and compensatory changes in one of the octanucleotide elements restored levels of gRNA and the other sgRNA species with an unaltered octanucleotide element to those of wild-type. Although compensatory changes significantly increased levels of the sgRNA species with the modified octanucleotide element, levels were not restored to those of wild-type. Our data indicate that long distance RNA-RNA interactions and the sequences of the interacting elements are required for PVX plus-strand RNA accumulation. (+info)
Identification of the RNA-binding sites of the triple gene block protein 1 of bamboo mosaic potexvirus.
The triple gene block protein 1 (TGBp1) encoded by open reading frame 2 of bamboo mosaic potexvirus (BaMV) was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified in order to test its RNA-binding activity. UV crosslinking assays revealed that the RNA-binding activity was present mainly in the soluble fraction of the refolded TGBp1. The binding activity was nonspecific and salt concentration-dependent: activity was present at 0-50 mM NaCl but was almost abolished at 200 mM. The RNA-binding domain was located by deletion mutagenesis to the N-terminal 3-24 amino acids of TGBp1. Sequence alignment analysis of the N-terminal 25 amino acids of the TGBp1 homologues of potexviruses identified three arginine residues. Arg-to-Ala substitution at any one of the three arginines eliminated most of the RNA-binding activity, indicating that they were all critical to the RNA-binding activity of the TGBp1 of BaMV. (+info)
Simple, but not branched, plasmodesmata allow the nonspecific trafficking of proteins in developing tobacco leaves.
Leaves undergo a sink-source transition during which a physiological change occurs from carbon import to export. In sink leaves, biolistic bombardment of plasmids encoding GFP-fusion proteins demonstrated that proteins with an Mr up to 50 kDa could move freely through plasmodesmata. During the sink-source transition, the capacity to traffic proteins decreased substantially and was accompanied by a developmental switch from simple to branched forms of plasmodesmata. Inoculation of sink leaves with a movement protein-defective virus showed that virally expressed GFP, but not viral RNA, was capable of trafficking between sink cells during infection. Contrary to dogma that plasmodesmata have a size exclusion limit below 1 kDa, the data demonstrate that nonspecific "macromolecular trafficking" is a general feature of simple plasmodesmata in sink leaves. (+info)
Evidence for two nonoverlapping functional domains in the potato virus X 25K movement protein.
To study subdomain organization of the potato virus X (PVX) movement protein (MP) encoded by the first gene in the triple gene block (TGB), we mutated the 25-kDa TGBp1 protein. The N-terminal deletion of the helicase motifs I, IA, and II resulted in loss of the ATPase activity and RNA binding. A frameshift mutation truncating the C-terminal motifs V and VI gave rise to increase of the TGBp1 ATPase activity and had little effect on RNA binding in vitro. Fusions of the green fluorescent protein with 25-kDa MP and its derivative lacking motifs V-VI exhibited similar fluorescence patterns in epidermal cells of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Cell-to-cell movement of the 25K-deficient PVX genome was not complemented by the TGBp1 of Plantago asiatica mosaic potexvirus (PlAMV) but was efficiently complemented by a chimeric TGBp1 consisting of the N-terminal part of PlAMV protein (motifs I-IV) and the PVX-specific C-terminal part (motifs V-VI). These results suggest that NTP hydrolysis, RNA binding, and targeting to the specific cellular compartment(s) are associated with the N-terminal domain of the TGBp1 including the helicase motifs I-IV and that the C-terminal domain is involved in specific interactions with other virus proteins. (+info)
Restoration of a stem-loop structure required for potato virus X RNA accumulation indicates selection for a mismatch and a GNRA tetraloop.
The 5' region of potato virus X (PVX) RNA contains a stem-loop structure, stem-loop 1 (SL1), that is required for efficient plus-strand RNA accumulation. To determine how changes to individual elements in SL1 are accommodated by the virus, we inoculated PVX transcripts containing modifications in the terminal tetraloop (TL), stem C (SC), and stem D (SD) regions onto Nicotiana benthamiana plants and analyzed progeny RNAs over a series of passages. Several progeny RNAs isolated from plants inoculated with the TL mutants containing changes to the first nucleotide of the GAAA motif or deletion of the entire TL sequence were found to contain multiple A insertions within the terminal loop region. The wild-type TL motif, GAAA, was recovered for all TL mutants by the second passage, suggesting that the sequence and potential structure of this element are crucial for PVX infection. Revertant RNAs isolated from plants inoculated with mutants in SD and the central region of SC indicated that increased stem length is tolerated. Restoration of SD length to the 4 bp typical of the wild-type PVX RNA was accompanied by A insertion into loop C. Mutants with a conversion of the C55-C78 mismatch to a G-C pair, relocation of this mismatch within the central region of SC, or deletion of C55-C78 were unable to infect protoplasts and plants. In contrast, the mutant with a conversion of the C55-C78 mismatch to an A-C mismatch, which exhibited low levels of PVX plus-strand RNA in protoplasts, was able to infect plants and quickly reverted to the wild-type C-C mismatch. These data indicate that important sequence and secondary structural elements within SL1 are required for efficient viral infection and that multiple A insertions within the TL and loop C regions, potentially by polymerase stuttering, accompany restoration of SL1 structure. (+info)