A strategy for reducing maternal mortality.
A confidential system of enquiry into maternal mortality was introduced in Malaysia in 1991. The methods used and the findings obtained up to 1994 are reported below and an outline is given of the resulting recommendations and actions. (+info)
The presentation and management of post-partum choriocarcinoma.
Post-partum choriocarcinoma is a rare complication of pregnancy. We have analysed a series of nine consecutive patients presenting with choriocarcinoma after a full-term non-molar pregnancy. All patients were managed at the Supraregional Trophoblastic Disease Screening and Treatment Centre at Weston Park Hospital, Sheffield between 1987 and 1996. All presented with persistent primary or secondary post-partum haemorrhage. Treatment with multiagent chemotherapy (initially methotrexate, dactinomycin and etoposide) was successful in all cases. Early diagnosis is important because this rare condition is potentially curable with appropriate chemotherapy. (+info)
Simultaneous occurrence of multiple neoplasms and hyperplasias in the adrenal and thyroid gland of the horse resembling multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome: case report and retrospective identification of additional cases.
Neoplastic and hyperplastic disorders that affect multiple endocrine tissues in a single individual are well described in humans but less so in domestic animals. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) in humans is a genetically determined syndrome characterized by the appearance of benign or malignant proliferations within two or more endocrine glands. The primary endocrine tumors that are characteristic of MEN arise from cells that share the capacity for amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation. Here we describe the case of a 22-year-old Thoroughbred mare that died during an unattended parturition and subsequently was presented for necropsy at the University of California, Davis, Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital. A C-cell (medullary) thyroid adenoma, pheochromocytoma, and multicentric bilateral nodular hyperplasia of the adrenal medulla were present, findings that are remarkably similar to those of human MEN syndrome. Mortality during pregnancy in women with undiagnosed pheochromocytoma is high (approximately 50%), typically because of hypertension and/or hemorrhage associated with catecholamine release from the tumor. Similarly, the mare in this report died of hemorrhage subsequent to parturition. A retrospective evaluation of endocrine tumors in horses that underwent necropsy at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital from 1987 to 1997 was undertaken to identify additional possible cases of MEN in horses. Data from this retrospective evaluation suggest that coexistence of hyperplasias and neoplasias of the thyroid and adrenal glands, similar to MEN syndrome of humans, also occurs with some frequency in the horse. (+info)
Complicated third stage of labor: time to switch on the scanner.
This Editorial chronicles the current experience in ultrasound usage during pathologic events occurring in the third stage of labor. Further improvement in the technology for carrying out clinical research will improve our knowledge so that more information can be gleaned from this modality to bestow optimal management for such potentially dangerous conditions. Awareness of the capabilities of sonography may provide the motivation for its use, and obstetricians are encouraged to scan the third stage of normal deliveries for better recognition of normal findings and improved assessment of abnormal ones. Although final decisions should be based mainly upon sound clinical judgement, we contend that complicated third stage of labor warrants turning on the scanner. (+info)
Fetal complications of obstetric cholestasis.
Among 56 pregnancies complicated by obstetric cholestasis five intrauterine deaths and one neonatal death occurred between 33 and 39 weeks, and a further six infants required urgent delivery for intrapartum asphyxia. Eighteen spontaneous premature deliveries occurred. Five mothers required specific treatment for unexplained postpartum haemorrhage. Cholestasis of pregnancy is therefore not a condition benign to the fetus, and it may contribute to increased maternal morbidity. (+info)
The influence of drugs on the kinin-forming system in relation to pregnancy and parturition in the rat.
The duration of normal gestation and parturition in the rat can be changed by treatment with drugs which alter the equilibrium of the kallikrein-kinin system. The kallikrein inhibitor, aprotinin, when given from Days 19-22 of pregnancy prolongs gestation. Treatment with aprotinin from Days 20-22 of pregnancy prolongs the parturient process, as does a single dose given on the morning of Day 22. Kallikrein, when administered from Days 19-22 of pregnancy, results in a prolongation of gestation and abolishes the pre-parturient behaviour ('labour'). Parturition is prolonged and many fetuses are stillborn. Soya bean trypsin inhibitor when given from Days 19-22 of pregnancy delays and prolongs parturition; maternal haemorrhage occurs during birth and many fetuses are born dead or are abandoned at birth. It is suggested that the kallikrein-kinin system plays a functional role in the normal process of parturition in the rat. (+info)
Use of methergine for the prevention of postoperative endometritis in non-elective cesarean section patients.
OBJECTIVE: Methergine increases constriction of uterine musculature which may facilitate sloughing of endometrial debris, close uterine vessels, and prevent post-cesarean endometritis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of methergine in preventing endometritis in patients undergoing non-elective cesarean section delivery. METHODS: Eighty patients undergoing non-elective cesarean section were enrolled in a prospective randomized clinical trial of methergine (41) versus no methergine (39) administration during the postpartum period. The hospital records were abstracted after discharge to compare the postpartum course. RESULTS: There were no significant demographic differences between the two groups. The women receiving methergine had a significant reduction in the rate of postoperative endometritis (10% vs. 36%, P < 0.005). In addition, the mean postoperative hemoglobin was significantly higher in the methergine treated group (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The use of methergine postpartum in women undergoing non-elective cesarean sections significantly reduces the incidence of postoperative endometritis and blood loss. (+info)
A multicentre randomized controlled trial of oral misoprostol and i.m. syntometrine in the management of the third stage of labour.
Postpartum haemorrhage accounts for nearly 28% of maternal mortality in developing countries. Syntometrine is an effective and commonly used oxytocic in preventing postpartum haemorrhage, but it requires a controlled storage environment and i.m. administration. Misoprostol is an orally active uterotonic agent. A total of 2058 patients having a singleton pregnancy, low risk for postpartum haemorrhage and vaginal delivery were randomized to receive either 1 ml syntometrine or 600 microgram misoprostol for the management of the third stage of labour. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the mean blood loss, the incidence of postpartum haemorrhage and the fall in haemoglobin concentration. The need for additional oxytocic injection was significantly higher in the misoprostol group [relative risk (RR) 1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.34-1.96], but that of manual removal of placenta was reduced (RR 0.29, 95% CI 0.09-0.87). Shivering and transient pyrexia were more common in the misoprostol group. Oral misoprostol might be used in the management of the third stage, especially in situations where the use of syntometrine is contraindicated and facilities for storage and parenteral administration of oxytocics are limited. (+info)