Renal failure predisposes patients to adverse outcome after coronary artery bypass surgery. VA Cooperative Study #5. (1/626)

BACKGROUND: More than 600,000 coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) procedures are done annually in the United States. Some data indicate that 10 to 20% of patients who are undergoing a CABG procedure have a serum creatinine of more than 1.5 mg/dl. There are few data on the impact of a mild increase in serum creatinine concentration on CABG outcome. METHODS: We analyzed a Veterans Affairs database obtained prospectively from 1992 through 1996 at 14 of 43 centers performing heart surgery. We compared the outcome after CABG in patients with a baseline serum creatinine of less than 1.5 mg/dl (median 1.1 mg/dl, N = 3271) to patients with a baseline serum creatinine of 1.5 to 3.0 mg/dl (median 1.7, N = 631). RESULTS: Univariate analysis revealed that patients with a serum creatinine of 1.5 to 3.0 mg/dl had a higher 30-day mortality (7% vs. 3%, P < 0.001) requirement for prolonged mechanical ventilation (15% vs. 8%, P = 0.001), stroke (7% vs. 2%, P < 0.001), renal failure requiring dialysis at discharge (3% vs. 1%, P < 0.001), and bleeding complications (8% vs. 3%, P < 0.001) than patients with a baseline serum creatinine of less than 1.5 mg/dl. Multiple logistic regression analyses found that patients with a baseline serum creatinine of less than 1.5 mg/dl had significantly lower (P < 0.02) 30-day mortality and postoperative bleeding and ventilatory complications than patients with a serum creatinine of 1.5 to 3.0 mg/dl when controlling for all other variables. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that mild renal failure is an independent risk factor for adverse outcome after CABG.  (+info)

Strategy for balancing anticoagulation and hemostasis in aortocoronary bypass surgery: blood conservation and graft patency. (2/626)

The minimal effective dose of aprotinin on hemostasis under normothermic perfusion, the influence of anticoagulant therapy on graft patency, and the thromboembolic and hemorrhagic events were investigated after aortocoronary bypass graft operation (CABG). One hundred CABG patients under normothermic perfusion were randomly divided into the following groups: (1) coumadin plus acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) (n=32); no aprotinin used during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB); (2) minimal-dose, 10(6) KIU during CPB, aprotinin used, followed by ASA and coumadin (n=36); and (3) very low-dose, total of 2x10(6) KIU before CPB and during CPB; aprotinin used; anticoagulation therapy with heparin early after surgery and followed by replacement with ASA and coumadin (n=32). The patency of arterial grafts was 100% in all groups. The patency of vein grafts was 95-98% and there was no difference among the groups. The blood loss was significantly reduced in both aprotinin groups (groups 2 and 3) compared to the coumadin plus ASA group, although no difference existed between the 2 aprotinin groups. Postoperative thrombotic and hemorrhagic events were not observed in any group. From this study, it was concluded that 10(6) KIU aprotinin in pump-prime-only followed by oral ASA and coumadin was the recommendation from the benefit/cost consideration.  (+info)

Two hour ambulation after coronary angioplasty and stenting with 6 F guiding catheters and low dose heparin. (3/626)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of ambulation of patients two hours after elective coronary angioplasty or stenting, or both. METHODS: Coronary angioplasty and stenting were performed using 6 F guiding catheters by the femoral approach and a standard dose of heparin 5000 IU. There were no angiographic exclusion criteria except for planned atherectomy. Patients given oral anticoagulants or heparin were not eligible. All patients were given aspirin. Patients who underwent stent implantation also received ticlopidine 250 mg daily. The arterial sheath was removed immediately after the procedure. Haemostasis was achieved by manual compression and maintained with an inguinal compression bandage. Early ambulation was attempted after two hours of supine bed rest following removal of the bandage. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The incidence of bleeding at or during ambulation requiring compression and additional bed rest, and puncture site complications documented 48 hours after the procedure. RESULTS: 300 of 359 consecutive eligible patients were included for two hour ambulation. Stent implantation was performed in 32% of the procedures. The mean (SD) time to haemostasis was 9.6 (3.2) minutes. Bleeding at ambulation occurred in five patients (1.7%), and nine patients (3.0%) reached the secondary end point of haematoma > 5 x 5 cm at 48 hour follow up. All were treated conservatively without further sequelae. There was no late bleeding or vascular complications. CONCLUSION: Ambulation two hours after elective balloon angioplasty or stent implantation with 6 F guiding catheters by the femoral route and low dose heparin is feasible and safe, with a low incidence of puncture site complications. This early ambulation protocol facilitates a short hospital stay.  (+info)

Laparoscopic-assisted colectomy: a comparison of dissection techniques. (4/626)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mobilization of the colon and dissection of the mesentery are difficult laparoscopic techniques. Traditional methods have been used for this dissection, but often with great difficulty. The ultrasonically activated shears, when introduced in 1993, had the possibility to make this dissection less technically difficult. This is a retrospective review of the use of these shears for these techniques during laparoscopic-assisted colectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-five patients underwent a laparoscopic-assisted right hemicolectomy or sigmoid resection. Colon mobilization and mesenteric dissection were completed intracorporeally. Complications, operative time, estimated blood loss, and length of stay were compared for resections completed with and without the ultrasonically activated shears. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients had laparoscopic-assisted colectomy without the shears, and 49 patients had the procedure with the shears. There were no complications due to the ultrasonic energy. Use of the shears resulted in shorter operative times (170 min. vs. 187 min., p=0.1989), similar median blood loss (98 mL vs. 95 mL, p=0.7620), and shorter lengths of stay (4.3 days vs. 6.9 days, p=0.0018). CONCLUSIONS: The ultrasonically activated shears are safe and effective for colon mobilization and mesenteric division. The use of the shears may result in shorter operative times and shorter lengths of stay.  (+info)

Complement activation and increased systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance indices during infusion of postoperatively drained untreated blood. (5/626)

In nine healthy young patients, operated on for thoracic scoliosis, a pulmonary artery catheter was inserted for the study of haemodynamic variables and blood sampling during autologous transfusion of postoperatively drained blood. At 1-3 h after wound closure, 10 ml kg/body weight of drained untreated blood from the wound was collected and recirculated over a l-h period. The concentration of the complement activation product, C3bc, increased from a mean of 5.4 (SD 1.5) AU ml-1 before infusion to 11.1 (3.9) AU ml-1 during infusion and then returned to 7.8 (2.8) AU ml-1 after infusion. The concentration of the terminal complement complex (TCC) increased from 0.5 (0.2) to 1.3 (0.5) AU ml-1 and was reduced to 0.7 (0.3) AU ml-1 after infusion. Only TCC exceeded the reference values which are 14 AU ml-1 for C3bc and 1.0 AU ml-1 for TCC. Pulmonary vascular resistance index concomitantly increased from a mean of 130 (SD 52) to 195 (88) dyn s cm-5 m-2 and was reduced to 170 (86) dyn s cm-5 m-2 after infusion. Systemic vascular resistance index increased from a mean of 1238 (SD 403) to 1349 (473) dyn s cm-5 m-2 and returned to 1196 (401) dyn s cm-5 m-2 after infusion. White blood cell count (WCC) increased from 14.4 (4.3) x 10(9) litre-1 before infusion to 17.8 (7.2) x 10(9) litre-1 during and after infusion. No change in platelet count during infusion was observed. There were no differences in WCC or platelet count between mixed venous or peripheral arterial blood. Pulmonary and systemic vascular resistance indices may be influenced by activated complement in drained untreated blood when it is recirculated.  (+info)

Do obese patients bleed more? A prospective study of blood loss at total hip replacement. (6/626)

This study compares blood loss at total hip replacement in obese and non-obese patients. We made a prospective study of intra-operative and postoperative blood loss in 80 consecutive primary cemented hip replacements. Patients' obesity was classified according to body mass index (BMI). Overall mean total blood loss was 1050 ml. Obese patients (BMI > 30) bled significantly more (P < 0.0001) than those of optimal weight (BMI < 26), whereas those overweight (BMI 26-30) did not. The mean excess blood loss in obese patients was 380 ml (95% confidence interval, 200-560 ml). At a time when the prevalence of obesity is increasing, this study quantifies the risks of greater blood loss with respect to obesity and aids informed consent.  (+info)

The effect of prophylactic epsilon-aminocaproic acid on bleeding, transfusions, platelet function, and fibrinolysis during coronary artery bypass grafting. (7/626)

BACKGROUND: Antifibrinolytic medications administered before skin incision decrease bleeding after cardiac surgery. Numerous case reports indicate thrombus formation with administration of epsilon-aminocaproic acid (epsilon-ACA). The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of epsilon-ACA administered after heparinization but before cardiopulmonary bypass in reducing bleeding and transfusion requirements after primary coronary artery bypass surgery. METHODS: Seventy-four adult patients undergoing primary coronary artery bypass surgery were randomized to receive 125 mg/kg epsilon-ACA followed by an infusion of 12.5 mg x kg(-1) x h(-1) or an equivalent volume of saline. Coagulation studies, thromboelastography, and platelet aggregation tests were performed preoperatively, after bypass, and on the first postoperative day. Mediastinal drainage was recorded during the 24 h after surgery. Homologous blood transfusion triggers were predefined and transfusion amounts were recorded. RESULTS: One patient was excluded for surgical bleeding and five patients were excluded for transfusion against predefined criteria One patient died from a dysrhythmia 2 h postoperatively. Among the remaining 67, the epsilon-ACA group had less mediastinal blood loss during the 24 h after surgery, 529+/-241 ml versus 691+/-286 ml (mean +/- SD), P < 0.05, despite longer cardiopulmonary bypass times and lower platelet counts, P < 0.05. Platelet aggregation was reduced in both groups following cardiopulmonary bypass but did not differ between groups. Homologous blood transfusion was similar between both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Prophylactic administration of epsilon-ACA after heparinization but before cardiopulmonary bypass is of minimal benefit for reducing blood loss postoperatively in patients undergoing primary coronary artery bypass grafting.  (+info)

Drains for thyroidectomy/parathyroidectomy: fact or fiction? (8/626)

BACKGROUND: Many authorities advocate draining the neck routinely after thyroid and parathyroid surgery with no scientific evidence to support this practice. We aimed to establish if the routine use of drains following thyroid/parathyroid surgery is of any value. METHOD: Medical records of patients who underwent thyroidectomy or parathyroidectomy under the care of a single endocrine surgeon (GP) over a 14-year period were reviewed. For the first 6 years, the neck was routinely drained (drain group) and for the subsequent 8 years the neck was only drained if the surgeon felt it necessary according to the operative situation (selective group). RESULTS: A total of 606 procedures (425 thyroidectomy and 181 parathyroidectomy) were performed on 582 patients. Drains were routinely used in 134 (22%) procedures (drain group) and were selectively used in 472 (78%) (selective group) of which 191 (40%) were drained. In all patients, there was a significant increase in the rate of postoperative bleeding/haematoma in patients with a drain (8/314 versus 1/282, Fisher's exact, P < 0.05). Wound infection occurred only in the patients with a drain. There was no difference in the incidence of postoperative bleeding and airways obstruction between the drain and selective groups. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the routine use of neck drains is unnecessary and may indeed be harmful, drain insertion being associated with an increased incidence of wound infection. Drains should, therefore, be used selectively after thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy.  (+info)