Ganglion cysts of the cruciate ligaments detected by MRI.
Eight patients with ganglion cysts arising from the cruciate ligaments of the knee joint underwent arthroscopic excision after the MR examination. The MR findings, clinical features and arthroscopic findings were evaluated comparatively. (+info)
Sonographic evaluation of the posterior cruciate ligament in amputated specimens and normal subjects.
The purpose of this study was to define the sonographic appearance and echogenicity of the normal posterior cruciate ligament. We examined the posterior cruciate ligament of five amputated specimens and five normal subjects using a 10 MHz linear array transducer. One K-wire was inserted into the substance of the posterior cruciate ligament of the amputated knee specimens to verify the location of the ligament on the sonogram. Various angles of insonation were used to examine the echogenicity of the posterior cruciate ligament. The results showed that the in situ posterior cruciate ligament appeared as a hypoechoic band relative to the surrounding tissue on sonograms, but it appeared hyperechoic when it was isolated and immersed in a water bath. The specific spatial orientation of the posterior cruciate ligament and anisotropy phenomenon contributed to the hypoechogenicity of the posterior cruciate ligament in situ on sonogram. (+info)
Eccentric and concentric isokinetic moment characteristics in the quadriceps and hamstrings of the chronic isolated posterior cruciate ligament injured knee.
OBJECTIVE: Functional strength deficits associated with chronic isolated posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) insufficiency have received limited attention in the literature. The purpose of this study was to determine the eccentric and concentric isokinetic moment characteristics of the quadriceps and hamstrings in a sample of patients with isolated PCL injury. METHODS: Eccentric and concentric mean average and average peak moments were measured for 17 patients with a history of conservatively treated isolated PCL injury using an isokinetic dynamometer. Quadriceps and hamstring isokinetic moments were recorded from 10 degree to 90 degree of knee flexion. Strength ratios were calculated and compared with those reported in the literature for healthy subjects. RESULTS: The hamstrings of the involved side (eccentric/concentric (E/C) ratio = 1.06) were significantly weaker (p<0.05) eccentrically than those of the contralateral side (E/C ratio = 1.29). All hamstrings/quadriceps (H/Q) ratios were less than the universally accepted value of 0.60 and the eccentric H/Q ratio for the injured extremity was significantly lower than the non-injured (p<0.05). In a bilateral comparison, the injured/non-injured (I/N) ratio was less than 1.00 for concentric quadriceps, eccentric quadriceps, and hamstring isokinetic moments. Calculation of the E/C ratio showed that, for the quadriceps, it was 1.08 on the injured side and 1.07 on the non-injured extremity. CONCLUSIONS: Eccentric strengthening should be an integral part of functionally rehabilitating the quadriceps and hamstrings of athletes who suffer from the complications associated with chronic isolated PCL insufficiency. (+info)
Primary repair of the cruciate and collateral ligaments after traumatic dislocation of the knee.
The management of traumatic dislocation of the knee in 40 patients (41 knees) with a mean age of 26.3 years is described. They were treated by primary repair and reconstruction with autologous grafting of the anterior (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligaments (PCL) and repair injuries to the collateral ligament and soft-tissue. The ACL and PCL were reconstructed using the patellar tendon and the gracilis and semitendinosus tendons, respectively. Early mobilisation using a continuous-passive-movement machine and active exercises was started on the second day after operation. At a mean follow-up of 39 months no patient reported 'giving way' and all except one had good range of movement. Of the 41 knees, 21 were rated as excellent, 15 good, four fair and one poor. Early reconstruction of the cruciate ligaments and primary repair of the collateral ligaments followed by an aggressive rehabilitation programme are recommended for these young, active patients. (+info)
The intercruciate band of the human knee. An anatomical and histological study.
Thirty cruciate ligaments were retrieved from either cadavers or limbs which had been amputated. Each specimen was sectioned and stained to demonstrate the presence of collagen, nerves and vessels. All 30 specimens contained an interconnecting band of collagen fibres between the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments. Vascular structures were present in all specimens and nerve fibres were identified in 26 (86%). We have called this structure the 'intercruciate band'. The anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments should no longer be thought of in isolation, but together as a 'cruciate complex'. (+info)
Technical evolution of arthoscopic knee surgery.
The widespread growth of arthroscopic techniques and their use has dramatically changed the practice of orthopaedic surgery. A high degree of clinical accuracy and minimally invasive procedure with a low surgical morbidity have encouraged the use of arthroscopy to assist in diagnosis, to determine prognosis and to provide treatment. In particular, the knee is the proper joint in which arthroscopy has its diagnostic and intraarticular surgical application. The rapid advancement of arthroscopic techniques has demonstrated a variety of surgical techniques in procedures such as meniscectomy, meniscal repair and cruciate ligament reconstruction during the last decade. This article reviews the past history of arthroscopy and technical evolution of arthroscopy in knee surgery in our department. (+info)
Posterior cruciate ligament function following total knee arthroplasty: the effect of joint line elevation.
One of the most commonly cited reasons for retaining the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) during total knee arthroplasty is to preserve femoral rollback and theoretically improve extensor mechanism efficiency (lengthening the moment arm). This study was undertaken to assess PCL function in this regard and to delineate the effects of joint line elevation that can be manipulated intraoperatively by the surgeon. The anterior movement of tibiofemoral contact following PCL resection at flexion angles 60 degrees demonstrated the beneficial effect of the PCL on extensor function. This anterior translation and the concomitant increases in quadriceps tendon load and patellofemoral contact pressures were consistently observed. This study demonstrated that small changes of the joint line position significantly influenced PCL strain and knee kinematics. In order to preserve the desired functions that would be lost with an overly lax PCL and to avoid the potential adverse effects of an overly tight PCL (posterior edge loading and increased tibiofemoral contact), the surgeon should make every effort to restore the preoperative joint line. If this is not possible, consideration should be given to posterior cruciate recession or use of a posterior cruciate substituting design. (+info)
Retain or sacrifice the posterior cruciate ligament in total knee arthroplasty? A histopathological study of the cruciate ligament in osteoarthritic and rheumatoid disease.
BACKGROUND: The decision whether to retain or resect the posterior cruciate ligament in total knee arthroplasty is at present determined clinically by preoperative radiological variables focusing upon the amount of joint destruction, and subsequent soft tissue contractures. However, these variables give only indirect information on the histological integrity and proprioceptive properties of the posterior cruciate ligament. METHODS: Twenty posterior cruciate ligaments, obtained during total knee arthroplasty, were evaluated histologically to study the relation between the degree of preoperative radiological joint destruction, structural integrity of the posterior cruciate ligament and the neurological integrity of the targeted tissue. Eleven patients had osteoarthritis and nine patients rheumatoid arthritis. Haematoxylin and eosin, Alcian blue (mucoid degeneration), elastica von Gieson, Gomori (elastic fibres and collagen), and immunohistochemical staining for neural structures were used. RESULTS: In all but one of the posterior cruciate ligaments, morphologically intact neural tissue was present in the peritendineum of the ligaments. Structural integrity of the collagen framework was present in only seven posterior cruciate ligaments. These cases all had grade three or four radiological joint destruction. In 13 of the specimens a certain degree of mucoid degeneration of collagen was present. All patients with grade five radiological knee joint destruction displayed mucoid degeneration and irregularity of the posterior cruciate ligament fibres. CONCLUSION: Because of the extensive architectural and probably functional damage of the posterior cruciate ligament in patients who have grade five radiological knee joint destruction, retention of the posterior cruciate ligament in knee prosthesis should not be advocated. (+info)