Uptakes and images of 38K in rabbit heart, kidney, and brain.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the kinetics and image quality of positron-emitting 38K (half-life, 7.6 min) and high-resolution small-animal PET in the heart, kidney, and brain of rabbits. METHODS: Studies were performed with 18 closed-chest anesthetized rabbits at baseline and during infusions of adenosine (0.2 mg/kg/min) and propranolol (0.5-1.0 mg/kg intravenously) using high-resolution small-animal PET. 38K was injected intravenously and dynamic PET imaging of the heart, kidney, or brain was performed for 3 min. Colored microspheres were injected into the left ventricle to measure organ blood flow. Arterial blood was withdrawn directly from the femoral artery, and, after the animals were killed, 38K activities in each organ were measured directly with a well counter. Uptake of 38K was calculated by dividing the 38K activities in each organ by the integral of the input function. The extraction fraction of 38K was estimated by dividing the uptake of 38K in each organ by the organ blood flow, measured by microspheres. RESULTS: The left ventricular myocardium and kidney were clearly visualized, but there was no visual 38K uptake in the brain. For the heart, kidney, and brain, respectively, average blood flow was 2.91 +/- 1.29, 5.49 +/- 0.71, and 0.57 +/- 0.11 mL/min/g, and the extraction fraction of 38K at baseline was 0.55 +/- 0.13, 0.48 +/- 0.13, and 0.022 +/- 0004. The Renkin-Crone model fit the relation between myocardial extraction and flow under a wide range of myocardial blood flow (r = 0.89). CONCLUSION: 38K is a suitable tracer for noninvasively showing the potassium kinetics of the heart, kidney, and brain by PET imaging. (+info)
Controversies in the radiotherapeutic management of cervical cancer.
Radiotherapy is a critical component of treatment for many patients with cervical cancer. The role of concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy in the majority of cases where radiotherapy is indicated has been established. However, optimal planning and delivery of radiotherapy require attention to multiple factors beyond combined-modality chemoradiation and the continuing search for novel and effective synergistic systemic agents. Several important issues surrounding radiotherapy for cervical cancer that require clarification include the following: the effect of anemia and tumor hypoxia on outcome and their potential as therapeutic targets, the appropriate incorporation of contemporary imaging and high-technology treatment planning systems in routine clinical practice, the role of prophylactic para-aortic radiation, and the role of radioprotectors. Ongoing and newly proposed studies are expected to provide insights into these questions, which will ultimately lead to enhanced radiotherapeutic and overall care for patients with cervical cancer. (+info)
Workflow management of HIS/RIS textual documents with PACS image studies for neuroradiology.
Reviewing brain tumor patients' complete medical record is a daunting task for any clinician. In current practice, the radiologist examines the most recent documents and then dictates an assessment of the patient's condition based on a review of the most current imaging study and compared with the most recent previous image study. Occasionally, the radiologist searches other clinical documents when more precise detail is needed. The purpose of this research is to develop effective methods to review all of the pertinent information in a patient medical record incorporating HIS (Hospital Information Systems), RIS (Radiology Information Systems) and PACS (Picture Archiving and Communications Systems) information in three distinct ways: filtering the document worklist for pertinent clinical data, identification of key clusters of clinical information, and an automatic hanging protocol that displays the MR images for optimal image comparison. (+info)
Radiation-induced medulloblastoma in an adult: a functional imaging study.
We describe functional imaging findings using MRI, 1H-Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and positron emission tomography in a case of radiation-induced medulloblastoma following radiotherapy for pineal gland tumor. MRS showed a prominent choline peak; FDG, 11C-Met and 11C-Choline PET showed a minimal glucose, increased methionine and choline uptake. (+info)
Hypoxia and glucose metabolism in malignant tumors: evaluation by [18F]fluoromisonidazole and [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography imaging.
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to compare glucose metabolism and hypoxia in four different tumor types using positron emission tomography (PET). (18)F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) evaluates energy metabolism, whereas the uptake of (18)F-labeled fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) is proportional to tissue hypoxia. Although acute hypoxia results in accelerated glycolysis, cellular metabolism is slowed in chronic hypoxia, prompting us to look for discordance between FMISO and FDG uptake. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Forty-nine patients (26 with head and neck cancer, 11 with soft tissue sarcoma, 7 with breast cancer, and 5 with glioblastoma multiforme) who had both FMISO and FDG PET scans as part of research protocols through February 2003 were included in this study. The maximum standardized uptake value was used to depict FDG uptake, and hypoxic volume and maximum tissue:blood ratio were used to quantify hypoxia. Pixel-by-pixel correlation of radiotracer uptake was performed on coregistered images for each corresponding tumor plane. RESULTS: Hypoxia was detected in all four patient groups. The mean correlation coefficients between FMISO and FDG uptake were 0.62 for head and neck cancer, 0.47 for breast cancer, 0.38 for glioblastoma multiforme, and 0.32 for soft tissue sarcoma. The correlation between the overall tumor maximum standardized uptake value for FDG and hypoxic volume was small (Spearman r = 0.24), with highly significant differences among the different tumor types (P < 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Hypoxia is a general factor affecting glucose metabolism; however, some hypoxic tumors can have modest glucose metabolism, whereas some highly metabolic tumors are not hypoxic, showing discordance in tracer uptake that can be tumor type specific. (+info)
Imaging the pharmacodynamics of HER2 degradation in response to Hsp90 inhibitors.
The development of therapeutic inhibitors of key signaling pathways has been hampered by the inability to assess the effect of a drug on its target in the patient. 17-allylaminogeldanamycin (17-AAG) is the first Hsp90 inhibitor to be tested in a clinical trial. It causes the degradation of HER2 and other Hsp90 targets, and has antitumor activity in preclinical models. We have developed a method for imaging the inhibition of Hsp90 by 17-AAG. We labeled an F(ab')2 fragment of the anti-HER2 antibody Herceptin with 68Ga, a positron emitter, which allows the sequential positron-emission tomographic imaging of HER2 expression. We have used this method to quantify as a function of time the loss and recovery of HER2 induced by 17-AAG in animal tumors. This approach allows noninvasive imaging of the pharmacodynamics of a targeted drug and will facilitate the rational design of combination therapy based on target inhibition. (+info)
Effect of pravastatin on low-density lipoprotein oxidation and myocardial perfusion in young adults with type 1 diabetes.
OBJECTIVE: Diabetes has been associated with increased oxidative stress and impaired vascular function. Statins have been shown to reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidizability and improve myocardial perfusion in hypercholesterolemic nondiabetic subjects. We studied whether pravastatin decreases LDL oxidation and improves myocardial perfusion in normocholesterolemic subjects with type 1 diabetes. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this randomized, double-blind study, myocardial perfusion was measured at rest and during dipyridamole stimulation with positron emission tomography and [15O]H2O during hyperinsulinemic euglycemia in 42 patients (age 30+/-6 years; LDL cholesterol 2.48+/-0.57 mmol/L) before and after 4-month treatment with pravastatin 40 mg/d or placebo. In addition, 12 healthy nondiabetic subjects were studied. LDL oxidation was measured by determining the level of baseline diene conjugation in lipids extracted from LDL. The level of LDL oxidation was similar in the pravastatin and placebo groups before treatment (23.9+/-4.6 versus 25.6+/-9.5 micromol/L, respectively) and decreased significantly during pravastatin treatment to 19.5+/-5.0 micromol/L (P<0.005). Myocardial perfusion reserve was significantly lower in diabetic patients compared with controls (4.15+/-1.29 versus 5.31+/-1.86, P<0.05) and did not change after treatment. Glycemic control and insulin sensitivity remained unchanged during treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Pravastatin treatment, resulting in decreased LDL oxidation, did not improve myocardial perfusion reserve in subjects with type 1 diabetes. (+info)
First (18)F-labeled tracer suitable for routine clinical imaging of sst receptor-expressing tumors using positron emission tomography.
PURPOSE: Despite excellent radionuclide characteristics, no (18)F-labeled peptides are available for quantitative peptide receptor mapping using positron emission tomography (PET) so far, mainly due to time-consuming multistep radiosyntheses with limited overall yields. A newly developed two-step chemoselective conjugation method allows rapid and high-yield [(18)F]fluorination of peptides via oxime formation and was applied for the synthesis of new (18)F-labeled carbohydrated Tyr(3)-octreotate (TOCA) analogs with optimized pharmacokinetics suitable for clinical routine somatostatin-receptor (sst) imaging. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: (18)F-labeled glucose (Gluc-S-) and cellobiose (Cel-S-) derivatives of aminooxy-functionalized TOCA were synthesized via oxime formation with 4-[(18)F]fluorobenzaldehyde ([(18)F]FBOA-peptides). Both the in vitro internalization profile of Gluc-S-Dpr([(18)F]FBOA)TOCA and Cel-S-Dpr([(18)F]FBOA)TOCA in hsst(2)-expressing Chinese hamster ovary cells (dual tracer protocol) and their biodistribution in AR42J tumor-bearing mice were investigated and compared with two [(18)F]fluoropropionylated ([(18)F]FP) analogs, Gluc-Lys([(18)F]FP)TOCA and Gluc-S-Dpr([(18)F]FP)TOCA. RESULTS: In contrast to [(18)F]FP-labeling (3 h), chemo-selective [(18)F]FBOA-formation (50 min) afforded the respective radiopeptides in high yields (65-85%). In vitro, Gluc-S-Dpr([(18)F]FBOA)TOCA and Cel-S-Dpr([(18)F]FBOA)-TOCA showed high internalization (139 +/- 2 and 163 +/- 8 of the reference [(125)I]Tyr(3)-octreotide, respectively), which was reflected by high tumor accumulation in vivo [21.8 +/- 1.4 and 24.0 +/- 2.5% of injected dose/g (1 h), respectively]. How-ever, only Cel-S-Dpr([(18)F]FBOA)TOCA and Gluc-S-Dpr([(18)F]FP)TOCA (tumor: 15.1 +/- 1.5% of injected dose/g) with its very low accumulation in all of the nontarget organs showed improved tumor:organ ratios compared with Gluc-Lys([(18)F]FP)TOCA. For Cel-S-Dpr([(18)F]FBOA)TOCA,tumor:organ ratios (1 h) were 42:1, 27:1, 15:1, 3:1, and 208:1 for blood, liver, intestine, kidney, and muscle, respectively. CONCLUSION: Due to the fast and high-yield chemoselective radiofluorination strategy and to its excellent pharmacokinetics, Cel-S-Dpr([(18)F]FBOA)TOCA represents the first tracer suitable for routine clinical application in PET somatostatin receptor imaging. (+info)