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(1/723) Prevalence of true vein graft aneurysms: implications for aneurysm pathogenesis.

BACKGROUND: Circumstantial evidence suggests that arterial aneurysms have a different cause than atherosclerosis and may form part of a generalized dilating diathesis. The aim of this study was to compare the rates of spontaneous aneurysm formation in vein grafts performed either for popliteal aneurysms or for occlusive disease. The hypothesis was that if arterial aneurysms form a part of a systemic process, then the rates of vein graft aneurysms should be higher for patients with popliteal aneurysms than for patients with lower limb ischemia caused by atherosclerosis. METHODS: Infrainguinal vein grafting procedures performed from 1990 to 1995 were entered into a prospective audit and graft surveillance program. Aneurysmal change was defined as a focal increase in the graft diameter of 1.5 cm or greater, excluding false aneurysms and dilatations after graft angioplasty. RESULTS: During the study period, 221 grafting procedures were performed in 200 patients with occlusive disease and 24 grafting procedures were performed in 21 patients with popliteal aneurysms. Graft surveillance revealed spontaneous aneurysm formation in 10 of the 24 bypass grafts (42%) for popliteal aneurysms but in only 4 of the 221 grafting procedures (2%) that were performed for chronic lower limb ischemia. CONCLUSION: This study provides further evidence that aneurysmal disease is a systemic process, and this finding has clinical implications for the treatment of popliteal aneurysms.  (+info)

(2/723) Isolated femoropopliteal bypass graft for limb salvage after failed tibial reconstruction: a viable alternative to amputation.

PURPOSE: Femoropopliteal bypass grafting procedures performed to isolated popliteal arteries after failure of a previous tibial reconstruction were studied. The results were compared with those of a study of primary isolated femoropopliteal bypass grafts (IFPBs). METHODS: IFPBs were only constructed if the uninvolved or patent popliteal segment measured at least 7 cm in length and had at least one major collateral supplying the calf. When IFPB was performed for ischemic lesions, these lesions were usually limited to the digits or small portions of the foot. Forty-seven polytetrafluoroethylene grafts and three autogenous reversed saphenous vein grafts were used. RESULTS: Ankle brachial pressure index (ABI) increased after bypass grafting by a mean of 0.46. Three-year primary life table patency and limb-salvage rates for primary IFPBs were 73% and 86%, respectively. All eight IFPBs performed after failed tibial bypass grafts remained patent for 2 to 44 months, with patients having viable, healed feet. CONCLUSION: In the presence of a suitable popliteal artery and limited tissue necrosis, IFPB can have acceptable patency and limb-salvage rates, even when a polytetrafluoroethylene graft is used. Secondary IFPB can be used to achieve limb salvage after failed tibial bypass grafting.  (+info)

(3/723) Superficial femoral eversion endarterectomy combined with a vein segment as a composite artery-vein bypass graft for infrainguinal arterial reconstruction.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the results of composite artery-vein bypass grafting for infrainguinal arterial reconstruction. METHODS: This study was designed as a retrospective case series in two tertiary referral centers. Forty-eight of 51 patients underwent the procedure of interest for the treatment of ischemic skin lesions (n = 42), rest pain (n = 3), disabling claudication (n = 1), and infected prosthesis (n = 2). The intervention used was infrainguinal composite artery-vein bypass grafting to popliteal (n = 18) and infrapopliteal (n = 30) arteries, with an occluded segment of the superficial femoral artery prepared with eversion endarterectomy and an autogenous vein conduit harvested from greater saphenous veins (n = 43), arm veins (n = 3), and lesser saphenous veins (n = 2). The main outcome measures, primary graft patency rates, foot salvage rates, and patient survival rates, were described by means of the life-table method for a mean follow-up time of 15.5 months. RESULTS: The cumulative loss during the follow-up period was 6% and 24% at 6 and 12 months, respectively. The primary graft patency rates, the foot salvage rates, and the patient survival rates for patients with popliteal grafts were 60.0% +/- 9.07%, 75.7% +/- 9.18%, and 93.5% +/- 6.03%, respectively, at 1 month; 53.7% +/- 11.85%, 68.9% +/- 12.47%, and 85. 0% +/- 9.92% at 1 year; and 46.7% +/- 18.19%, 68.9% +/- 20.54%, and 53.1% +/- 17.15% at 5 years. For infrapopliteal grafts, the corresponding estimates were 72.4% +/- 7.06%, 72.9% +/- 6.99%, and 92.7% +/- 4.79% at 1 month; 55.6% +/- 10.70%, 55.4% +/- 10.07%, and 77.9% +/- 9.02% at 1 year; and 33.6% +/- 22.36%, 55.4% +/- 30.20%, and 20.8% +/- 9.89% at 5 years. CONCLUSION: The composite artery-vein bypass graft is a useful autogenous alternative for infrainguinal arterial reconstruction when a vein of the required quality is not available or when the procedure needs to be confined to the affected limb.  (+info)

(4/723) Plaque area increase and vascular remodeling contribute to lumen area change after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of the femoropopliteal artery: an intravascular ultrasound study.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the change in lumen area (LA), plaque area (PLA), and vessel area (VA) after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of the femoropopliteal artery. METHODS: This was a prospective study. Twenty patients were studied with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) immediately after PTA and at follow-up examination. Multiple corresponding IVUS cross-sections were analyzed at the segments that were dilated by PTA (ie, treated sites; n = 168), including the most stenotic site (n = 20) and the nondilated segments (ie, reference sites; n = 77). RESULTS: At follow-up examination, both the PLA increase (13%) and the VA decrease (9%) resulted in a significant LA decrease (43%) at the most stenotic sites (P =.001). At the treated sites, the LA decrease (15%) was smaller and was caused by the PLA increase (15%). At the reference sites, the PLA increase (15%) and the VA increase (6%) resulted in a slight LA decrease (3%). An analysis of the IVUS cross-sections that were grouped according to LA change (difference >/=10%) revealed a similar PLA increase in all the groups: the type of vascular remodeling (VA decrease, no change, or increase) determined the LA change. At the treated sites, the LA change and the VA change correlated closely (r = 0.77, P <.001). At the treated sites, significantly more PLA increase was seen in the IVUS cross-sections that showed hard lesion or media rupture (P <.05). No relationship was found between the presence of dissection and the quantitative changes. CONCLUSION: At the most stenotic sites, lumen narrowing was caused by plaque increase and vessel shrinkage. Both the treated sites and the reference sites showed a significant PLA increase: the type of vascular remodeling determined the LA change at follow-up examination. The extent of the PLA increase was significantly larger in the IVUS cross-sections that showed hard lesion or media rupture.  (+info)

(5/723) Popliteal artery occlusion as a late complication of liquid acrylate embolization for cerebral vascular malformation.

Occlusion of arteriovenous malformations of the brain (BAVMs) by means of an endovascular approach with liquid acrylate glue is an established treatment modality. The specific hazards of this procedure are related to the central nervous system. In the case of unexpectedly rapid polymerization of the cyanoacrylate glue and adhesion of the delivering microcatheter to the BAVM, severing the catheter at the site of vascular access is considered an acceptable and safe management. We present a unique complication related to this technique that has not been described yet. Fragmentation and migration of the microcatheter, originally left in place, had caused popliteal artery occlusion, which required saphenous vein interposition, in a 25-year-old man. Suggestions for avoiding this complication are discussed.  (+info)

(6/723) Disruption of skin perfusion following longitudinal groin incision for infrainguinal bypass surgery.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to investigate whether such an incision results in a reduction in blood flow, and therefore haemoglobin oxygen saturation, across the wound. DESIGN: Microvascular oxygenation was measured with lightguide spectrophotometry in 21 patients undergoing femoropopliteal or femorodistal bypass procedures. A series of measurements were made in the groin, medial and lateral to the surface marking of the femoral artery. The mean oxygen saturation on each side was calculated, and the contra-lateral groin was used as a control. The measurements were repeated at 2 and 7 days postop. RESULTS: Oxygen saturation in the skin of the operated groins was increased significantly from baseline at 2 days postop (f = 25.80, p < 0.001) and had begun to return to normal by day 7. The rise was more marked on the lateral side of the wound than on the medial (f = 12.32, p < 0.001). There was no such difference in the control groins. All wounds healed at 10 days. CONCLUSIONS: These results show a significant difference in skin oxygenation between the lateral and medial sides of the groin following longitudinal incision. This may contribute to the relatively high incidence of postoperative infection in these wounds.  (+info)

(7/723) Outcome of the first 100 femoropopliteal angioplasties performed in the operating theatre.

OBJECTIVES: To examine the factors influencing outcome and restenosis in an initial series of 100 infrainguinal angioplasties. DESIGN: Prospective study of angioplasties of the superficial femoral and popliteal arteries performed over a 42-month period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred consecutive angioplasties in 96 patients performed in the operating theatre between January 1993 and June 1996 were followed prospectively with clinical, ABI, and duplex assessment. Forty-four procedures were for disabling claudication and 56 for critical ischaemia. Stents were deployed in 30 limbs. RESULTS: Angioplasty was successful in 84 of 100 limbs. Cumulative patency of the entire group at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months was 78%, 60%, 53%, and 49% respectively, while excluding initial failures, gave patencies of 95%, 69%, 63%, and 58%, respectively. Claudicants with a 1-year patency of 64% did significantly better than patients with critical ischaemia (44% p < 0.05). Angioplasties performed during the initial 21 months had a 1-year patency of 42%, while those performed in the final 21 months had a 74% patency (p = N.S.). The patency for stented arteries was 66% vs. 49% for angioplasty alone (p = N.S.). The 2-year limb salvage rate was 91% in patents with critical ischaemia. Forty-six per cent of restenoses were asymptomatic. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that while angioplasty is useful in treating infrainguinal arterial disease, there is a learning curve, resulting in a high restenosis rate for occlusive and multilevel disease, while concomitant placement of stents may be beneficial.  (+info)

(8/723) Prospective randomised trial of distal arteriovenous fistula as an adjunct to femoro-infrapopliteal PTFE bypass.

OBJECTIVES: To compare graft patency and limb salvage rate following femoro-infrapopliteal bypass using ePTFE grafts with and without the addition of adjuvant arterio-venous fistula. DESIGN: A prospectively randomised controlled trial. MATERIALS: Patients referred to two teaching hospital vascular surgery units in the U.K. for the treatment of critical limb ischaemia. METHODS: Eighty-seven patients (M:F; 2.3:1) undergoing 89 femoro-intrapopliteal bypass operations with ePTFE grafts for critical limb ischaemia were randomly allocated to have AVF included in the operative procedure (n = 48) or to a control group without AVF (n = 41). An interposition vein-cuff was incorporated at the distal anastomosis in all patients. RESULTS: The cumulative rates of primary patency and limb salvage at 1-year after operation for patients with AVF were 55.2% and 54.1% compared to 53.4% and 43.2%, respectively, for the control group. The differences between the AVF and control groups did not reach statistical significance, in terms of either graft patency or limb salvage, at any stage after operation (Log-Rank test). CONCLUSIONS: AVF confers no additional significant clinical advantage over interposition vein cuff in patients having femoro-infrapopliteal bypass with ePTFE grants for critical limb ischaemia.  (+info)